NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6
Students who become well versed in Civics learn the fundamentals of how their government operates. They learn about the government’s legislative, judicial, and executive departments and why these three bodies must cooperate in imposing and upholding laws. They also learn about the responsibilities of each branch and how the three work together to form a well-designed system of checks and balances.
Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 is about Understanding our Criminal Justice System.. What does the term “fair trial” mean? Do you know what an FIR is? Who is a public prosecutor?
All the procedures and the roles of various people in the criminal justice system are well-emphasised in Extramarks’ Understanding Our Criminal Justice System Class 8 Solutions. Students will be able to comprehend these procedures and the increasing importance of different individuals in the criminal justice system. A court of law determines whether an accused person is guilty once arrested. According to the Constitution, everyone accused of a crime must get a fair trial.
Extramarks has recently come up with the concept of NCERT Solutions, and these have proven very helpful for the students. NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Solutions has been created by Extramarks subject experts in keeping in mind that it should be easy for the students to comprehend them.
Apart from Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Solutions, there are plenty of materials on the Extramarks’ website. Material such as NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE past years’ question papers, and so much more can be easily found on the Extramarks’ website for all classes.
Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6
To make it convenient for students, Extramarks lists the key topics that are covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6- Understanding our Criminal Justice System:
- What is the Role of the Police in Investigating a Crime?
- What is the Role of the Public Prosecutor?
- What is the Role of the Judge?
- What is a Fair Trial?
Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6- Understanding our Criminal Justice System.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 introduces the chapter here. One immediately considers alerting the police when someone breaks a regulation or legislation enacted by the government. We typically believe that the police department determines whether a person is guilty or not because of the role that police personnel play in apprehending lawbreakers and criminals. That’s not the case, though. Whether or not someone is guilty is determined by a court of law after they have been arrested. An accused of a crime is entitled to a fair trial under the Constitution.
A lawyer’s representation on one’s behalf is a Fundamental Right guaranteed by Article 22 of the Constitution. Article 39A requires the State of the Constitution to offer legal representation to anyone who cannot do so because of their financial situation or another impairment.
Four prominent players in the Criminal Justice System are:
- The Police
- The Public Prosecutor
- The Defence Lawyer
- The Judge
What is the Role of the Police in Investigating a Crime?
Police play a primary role in investigating a crime; NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 explains this in detail in the following section.
The investigation of any complaint regarding the conduct of a crime is one of the police’s primary duties. The investigation includes gathering various types of evidence and documenting witness accounts. The police must draw a conclusion based on their findings. If the police believe the evidence supports the accused’s guilt, they submit a charge sheet to the court. The judge must determine guilt or innocence; it is not the police’s responsibility to do so.
On the other hand, the rule of law states that everyone, including the police, is bound by the nation’s law. Police inquiries must be made legally and with the utmost regard for human rights. The Supreme Court has established rules that the police must adhere to while making an arrest, keeping someone in custody, and questioning them. During the inquiry, the police are prohibited from torturing, beating, or shooting someone. Even for minor offenses, they are not permitted to penalize a person.
Article 22 of the Constitution
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 explains that any individual that is arrested has been guaranteed the following Fundamental Rights under Article 22 of the Constitution and criminal law:
- The right to be informed of the crime for which one is being detained at the time of the arrest.
- The right to appear before a magistrate no later than 24 hours after arrest.
- The right to not be ill-treated or tortured while being arrested or in custody.
- Police-interrogated confessions cannot be used against the accused in court.
- Boys under 15 and women cannot be summoned to the police station just for questioning.
D.K. Basu Guidelines
For the arrest, custody, and questioning of anyone, the police and other agencies must adhere to specified guidelines and rules established by the Supreme Court of India. The following are the so-called D.K. Basu Guidelines explained by NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6:
- The police officers conducting the arrest or questioning should have name badges with their designations that are clear, accurate, and conspicuous.
- When someone is arrested, a memo should be written down that includes the date and time of the arrest. It should also be supported by at least one witness, who might be a member of the detained person’s family. The individual who was arrested should countersign the arrest memo.
- The individual who has been detained, arrested, or is being questioned has the right to let a friend or family member know.
- Police must notify a friend or family of the accused about the arrest’s date, time, and location, within 8 to 12 hours of the arrest.
First Information Report
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 explains the First Information Report (FIR) concept.
Once the FIR has been filed, the police can start their criminal investigation. According to the legislation, if someone provides information regarding a cognizable offense, the police station in charge of the region is required to file an FIR. The police can get this information verbally or in writing. The FIR typically includes the complaint’s name and address, date, time, location of the offence, and a summary of the incident’s main facts. The suspects’ names and witnesses should be recorded, if available. In a designated form that the complainant has signed, police may file an FIR. Following the law, the complainant is entitled to a free copy of the FIR from the police.
What is the Role of the Public Prosecutor?
Who are Public Prosecutors, and what is their role? NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 answers this question in this section.
Criminal offenses are considered public wrongs since they have been committed against society and the affected victims. The public prosecutor represents the State’s interests. The role of the public prosecutor gets started after the police have completed their investigation and submitted the charge sheet to the court. The public prosecutor is not involved in the probe in any way. The prosecutor must carry out the prosecution on behalf of the State. They must operate impartially as a court official so that the court can make a decision.
What is the Role of the Judge?
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 explains how the judge plays a significant role during a trial.
The judge conducts the trial in open court with impartiality, much like an umpire in a sporting event. They hear out every witness and evidence that the prosecution and defence present. Based on the evidence presented, The Judge judges whether the accused is guilty or innocent. If the accused is guilty, the judge is also required to announce the punishment and, following the law, either sentence them to jail time, a fine, or both.
What is a Fair Trial?
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 explains that several distinct processes must be followed for a trial to be fair. According to Article 21 of the Constitution, which protects the right to life, only a judicial process that is fair and reasonable can be used to take away someone’s life or liberty. Article 21 of the Constitution is upheld through a fair trial.
Features of a fair trial
The following characteristics of a fair trial must be met:
- The trial will be held in open court, in the public eye, with the accused present.
- The accused is to be represented by a lawyer.
- The accused can cross-examine all prosecution witnesses and present witnesses in their defence.
- The judge must presume the accused was innocent.
- The prosecution is required to prove the accused is undeniably guilty.
- The judge decides the case solely based on the evidence.
- The judge remains impartial and on the record.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Exercise and Solutions
Extramarks NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 contains explanations of essential concepts and other key topics covered in Class 8 Chapter 6. For a thorough grasp and a fast and effective recall, students should read the chapter several times, paying attention to all details.
Students can easily understand our Criminal Justice System by accessing NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6.
Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6
To perform well in their exam, students should carefully review each chapter’s concept. Extramarks’ NCERT solutions make it simpler for students to become prepared proficiently. Furthermore, the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 includes thorough details concerning the chapter, helping students prepare. Following are some of the reasons why should you choose Extramarks:
- They cover all the chapter-related questions along with their comprehensive answers explained with proper instances and illustrations.
- The answers in NCERT solutions are explained in detail, which gives students an idea of how to attempt a question in the final exam in the right manner
- As the explanations are comprehensive, the fundamentals of the chapter are understood by the students in a better way.
- These solutions save students’ time as they wouldn’t have to look for any other guidance or resources. They prove to be a one-stop solution for the students
Q.1 All of the processes, written in bold on page 74, are crucial to a fair trial. Write in your own words what you understand of the following processes based on the above description of Shanti’s case.
a. Open Court:
b. Basis of Evidence:
c. Cross-examination of Prosecution Witnesses:
a. Open Court: Open Court means the case was contested in public view. This ensures that the trial is fair and no injustice is done to the accused.
b. Basis of Evidence: This means the judge decides whether the accused is the culprit or not only after examining all the evidence. A judge presumes that the accused is innocent. The judge never jumps to the conclusion that the accused is the culprit merely on the basis of circumstances.
c. Cross-examination of Prosecution Witnesses: This means the defence lawyer will call in the prosecution witnesses and cross examine them by questioning them. This allows him to understand whether there is any truth in the statements of the witnesses.
Q.2 Discuss in class what might have happened in Shanti’s case if the following procedures had not been observed.
a. If she were not defended by a lawyer.
b. If the court had not assumed her to be innocent.
Ans. Hint: (a) denied justice
(b) punished for a crime she never committed
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
The four critical participants in the criminal justice system are the Police, the Public prosecutor, the Defence lawyer, and the Judge. Police officers produce reports as well as conduct arrests. However, determining guilt or innocence is not the police’s responsibility. Once a person has been arrested, a court of law decides whether they are guilty. Everyone charged with a crime has the right to a fair trial under the Constitution, which also ensures that various persons must play distinct roles.
In the same way that an umpire officiates a game, the judge oversees the fairness and transparency of a criminal trial. Based upon the evidence presented and views of arguing parties, the judge decides if the accused is guilty. When the accused is announced guilty, the judge has to impose a punishment ranging from a fine or a jail sentence, or even both, depending on the gravity of the case.