NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Social Science Chapter 4 : Agriculture


Give reasons.
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.


(i) Agriculture is a primary activity in India. India is known as an agricultural country. It is because two third of population depends on agriculture; agriculture provides employment to 65% labour force.It accounts for 25% of Gross Domestic product and 16% share of total value of country’s export.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions. It is because different crops require different geographical conditions and climatic conditions. Favourable topography of soil and climates play an important role in selection of crops to be grown in that area. Growing of crops is also determined by human factors, like demand of produce, labour and level of technology. 


Tick the correct answer. (i) Horticulture means (a) growing of fruits and vegetables (b) primitive farming (c) growing of wheat (ii) Golden fibre refers to
(a) tea (b) cotton (c) jute (iii) Leading producers of coffee
(a) Brazil (b) India (c) Russia


  (i) (a) growing of fruits and vegetable  ✓
 (ii) (c) jute  ✓ 
(iii) (a) Brazil  ✓


Solve the crossword puzzle with the help of given clues.
Across Down
1. Crop that needs well drained fertile soils, moderate temperatures and lots of sunshine (5) 2. Increasing production through use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers and pesticides (5,10) 4. USA, Canada, Russia, Australia are major producers of this crop (5) 10. Type of farming to meet family needs (11) 13. Rearing of animals for sale (9) 14. Growing grapes for wines (11) 1. Coarse grains are also called (7) 3. Cultivation involving slash and burn (8) 5. Growing of crops, fruits and vegetables (11) 6. Tea, coffee, sugarcane and rubber are grown in (11) 7. Requires 210 frost-free days for growth (6) 8. Growing of flowers (12) 9. Also called ‘Golden Fibre’ (4) 11. Also known as paddy (4) 12. Activity concerned with extraction of natural resources (7)




1. Maize

2. Green Revolution

4. Wheat

10. Subsistence

13. Livestock

14. Viticulture

1. Millets

3. Shifting

5. Agriculture

6. Plantations

7. Cotton

8. Horticulture

9. Jute

11. Rice

12. Primary



Distinguish between the followings. (i) Primary activities and tertiary activities (ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.



Primary activities

Tertiary activities

Primary activities include all those connected with extraction and production of natural resources.

Tertiary activities provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through services.

Example: Agriculture, fishing, gathering, etc.

Example: Transport, trade, banking, insurance, etc.


Subsistence farming

Intensive farming

This farming is practiced on small and scattered land holdings to meet the needs of farmer’s family.

In this type of farming, small farms are cultivated intensively

Use of traditional methods of agriculture, primitive tools, low quality of fertilisers and seeds.

In this type of farming, quality seeds, rich manure, fertilisers and modern irrigation methods are used.

Food production is consumed within the family. There is no surplus for market.

More than one crop is cultivated. There is a high production from limited land and intensive labour.

Crops Grown in subsistence farming are sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton, jute, etc.

Main crops grown are wheat and rice.


Answer the following questions. (i) What is agriculture? (ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture? (iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages? (iv) What is plantation agriculture? (v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.


(i) Agriculture is a primary activity that includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. It is also called farming.

(ii) The factors influencing agriculture are availability of arable land, favourable topography of soil and climate.

(iii) Shifting agriculture or slash or burn agriculture is a type of primitive subsistence agriculture. In this type of agriculture, a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot.

Disadvantages of shifting agriculture are:
 1. Deforestation
 2. Soil erosion
 3. It is subsistence farming, which is insufficient for feeding a large population

(iv)Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew,rubber, banana or cotton are grown. Large amount of labour and capital are required in this type of farming.


Fibre Crop

Climatic conditions required


Requires high temperature (30°C-40°C), light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.


Requires high temperature (more than 25°C),heavy rainfall and humid climate. This crop is grown in the tropical areas.

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