NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science Resources And Development Chapter 6

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6

The study of Geography is typically divided into two main subfields, namely cultural and physical Geography, to encompass such a vast quantity of material. We’ll start with physical Geography as that’s the one that most of us are familiar with. The study of locations and the interactions between people and their environments is known as physical Geography.

Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 is Human Resources. The Government of India (GOI) created the Ministry of Human Resource Department (MHRD) in 1985 to offer a supportive environment for skill development. For the general growth of our nation, every segment of the population is crucial. To evaluate and grow our human resources, a foundation must be built. You may learn how the GOI has taken necessary steps to separate the population based on gender, age, skill level, education, etc., in this chapter by referring to the Extramarks Geography Class 8 Chapter 6.

Students are often advised to go through the NCERT Solutions of each chapter to get better understanding and clarity of concepts in the chapter. Many students find it difficult to find answers to all the NCERT exercises. Hence, at Extramarks, we have developed NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 to encourage the students to learn and frame their own answers and to further improve them with the help of solutions. Since the  Subject experts prepare these NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Solutions, they adhere to the latest CBSE guidelines and they are written in a manner that fulfils the needs of all the students irrespective of their level. It provides an in-depth understanding of subjects and to score well in their examinations.

Not just NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6, students can access a repository of study materials on the Extramarks website.. For example, material such as NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE previous year question papers, and more can be easily found on the Extramarks website for all classes.

Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6

Following are the key topics that are covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6– Human Resource:

  • Human Resources
  • Distribution of Population
  • Factors affecting the Distribution of Population
  • Density of Population 
  • Population Change
  • Patterns of Population change
  • Population Composition

Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6- Human Resource.

Human Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 states that a country’s most valuable resource is its people. Only when humans find value in nature’s gift does it become relevant. People are what transforms them into “resources,” with their needs and skills. Human resources are, therefore, the most valuable resource.

Distribution of Population 

The pattern of population distribution describes how people are dispersed throughout the surface of the world. The world’s population of more than 90% is concentrated in around 30% of the land area. Uneven population distribution. Both densely inhabited and sparsely populated places exist. Southeast Asia, northern Europe, and North America are the most congested regions. High latitude regions, tropical deserts, tall mountains, and regions with equatorial forests have deficient populations. People living north of the equator far outnumber those living the south of it. Two continents, Asia and Africa, are home to over 75 per cent of the world’s population. Only 10 countries are home to 60% of the world’s population. More than 100 million people live in each of them.

Density of Population

The number of people residing on a specific square metre of the earth’s surface is the population density. 51 people live  per square kilometre, the average worldwide population density. The region with the highest  population density is South-Central Asia, followed by East and South-East Asia.

Factors affecting the Distribution of Population

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 list  some factors that majorly influence the distribution of population:

Geographical features:

Climate: Extremely hot or frigid regions are often avoided by people.

Examples include the Sahara Desert, Canada’s and Russia’s Polar Regions, and Antarctica.

Topography: Because these regions are suited for farming, industry, and service-related enterprises, people choose to live on lowlands rather than mountains and plateaus.

  • The world’s most densely populated areas are the Ganga plains.
  •  Sparsely populated areas include the Andes, Alps, and the Himalayas.

Water: People choose to reside in places with easy access to fresh water. The world’s river valleys are crowded with people, whereas deserts are sparsely inhabited.

Soil: Land that is ideal for agriculture is one with fertile soils.

Examples include densely inhabited, fertile plains like the Nile in Egypt, the Ganga and Brahmaputra in India, Hwang-He, and Chang Jiang in China.

Minerals: More people live in areas with mineral resources.

For instance, people moved to diamond mines of South Africa and the Middle East once oil was discovered there.

Social, Cultural and Economic factors

Social factors: More people live in areas with superior housing, educational, and medical amenities, such as Pune.

Cultural factors: People are drawn to places having a strong religious or cultural identity.

Varanasi, Jerusalem, and Vatican City are three examples.

Economic factors: Because they offer job possibilities, industrial zones draw many people.

Examples are the crowded cities of Mumbai in India and Osaka in Japan.

 

Population change

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 discusses another essential topic of population change.

The term “population change” describes a shift in the total population at a certain time. The population of the globe is not steady due to fluctuations in the number of births and deaths. The population of the globe increased gradually but consistently up to the 1800s. Although many infants were born, many also passed away too soon. Causes include a lack of adequate healthcare facilities, a lack of enough food to feed everyone, and farmers’ inability to produce enough food to satisfy everyone’s needs. Low population growth was the outcome. The world population peaked at 1 billion people in 1804, and then around 155 years later, in 1959, it surpassed 3 billion people, a phenomenon known as a population boom. The population increased to 6 billion people in 1999, roughly 40 years later. Better food and medical supplies, a decline in mortality, and still-high birth rates were the key contributors to this rise.

The birth rate, or the number of live births per 1,000 people, is typically used to calculate the number of births. The death rate, or the number of fatalities per 1,000 persons, is typically used to calculate the number of deaths. Migrations are the influx and emigration of people. The natural sources of population change are births and deaths. The natural growth rate is the difference between a nation’s birth and mortality rates. The world’s population expansion is mainly caused by a sharp rise in the natural growth rate.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 explains that migration is another factor that affects population size. People can move both inside and across nations. People who emigrate are individuals who leave their nation, whereas immigrants are those who enter it. Immigration has increased the population of nations like the United States of America and Australia. Sudan is a nation where population numbers have decreased due to emigration or out-migration.

Patterns of Population change

Worldwide population growth rates differ; although the world’s population is expanding quickly, this expansion is not being experienced by all nations. Kenya experiences high rates of births, deaths, and population growth. Death rates have decreased due to better healthcare, but high birth rates continue, contributing to solid growth rates. Due to low birth and mortality rates, population growth is declining in other nations like the United Kingdom.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 in the above section explains the pattern of population change. Register with Extramarks for more such information.

Population Composition

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 in this section talks about how a crowded location has little bearing on its economic progress. Japan and Bangladesh are both extremely populated. Japan, however, has a more advanced economy than Bangladesh. Age, sex, literacy level, health status, employment, and income level are all variables among people. The structure of the population is referred to as population composition.

Knowing the population’s gender distribution, age range, level of education, kind of employment, income level, and health status is possible by looking at the population’s composition. The population or age-sex pyramid can be used to examine a nation’s population distribution.

A population pyramid showcases:

  • The entire population was separated into several age ranges, such as 5 to 9 years old and 10 to 14 years.
  • The proportion of each group’s male and female members in the overall population.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 explains that the demographic pyramids in various nations are diverse—

  • Due to low birth rates, the first kind of pyramid has narrow pyramids at the base. It spreads in the older age groups due to declining death rates. Japan’s demographic pyramid, for instance.
  • Due to high birth rates and declining mortality rates among younger age groups, the second category of population pyramids includes those that expand at the base. It occurs because there are more children born than ever before and more of them live to maturity. India’s population pyramid, for instance.
  • The population pyramids of the least developed nations are included in the third kind. High birth rates are wider at the base and narrow at the centre, indicating higher mortality rates. Consider Kenya’s and Nigeria’s population pyramids.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Exercise and Solutions

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Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6

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Q.1 Answer the following questions.
(i) Why are people considered a resource?
(ii) What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world?
(iii) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?
(iv) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.
(v) What is meant by population composition?
(vi) What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country?

Ans.

(i) People are a nation’s greatest resource. Nature’s bounty becomes significant only when people find it useful. They can make the best use of nature to create more resources as they have the knowledge, skill and the technology to do so. It is people with their demands and abilities that turn them into ‘resources’. Education and health help in making people a valuable resource.

(ii) The distribution of population in the world is extremely uneven. The factors responsible for uneven distribution of population are:
1. Geographical factors: Favourable topography and climate, fertile soil, availability of water and mineral resources affect population distribution.
2. Social factors: Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more densely populated.
3. Cultural factors: Places with religion or cultural significance attract people.
4. Economic factors: Places with more industries, transport and communication facilities, and better employment opportunities attract more people.

(iii) The world population has grown very rapidly. The population increase in the world is mainly due to the rapid increase in the natural growth rate. The main reason for this growth was that with better food supplies and medicine, deaths were reduced, while the number of births still remained fairly high.

(iv) Two factors influencing population change are natural growth and migration.
1. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country is called the natural growth rate. The birth rate is the number of live births per 1,000 people. The death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people. Births and deaths are the natural causes of population change.
2. Population size also changes due to migration. Migrations are the movement of people in and out of an area. People may move within a country or between countries. Immigration is people coming from neighbouring countries. Emigration is people moving to other countries.

(v) Population composition refers to the structure of the population. Population composition helps to know about the individual characteristics, like gender, age group, literacy level, occupation, income and health conditions.

(vi) Population composition of a country is represented by the population pyramid or age-sex pyramid. The Population pyramid shows the age-sex structure of the population. The pyramid displays the percentage or actual amount of a population, broken down by gender and age. By studying the population pyramid, we can understand the various parameters of the population of a country. Different shapes of the pyramid reflect the number of people of different age and sex. A population pyramid shows:
1. The total population divided into various age groups.
2. In each of the groups, the percentage of the total population is subdivided into males and females.
3. Number of dependents in a country and people in the working category.
4. Levels of births and deaths.

Q.2 Tick the correct answer.
(i) Which does the term population distribution refer to?
(a) How population in a specified area changes over time.
(b) The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.
(c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.

(ii) Which are three main factors that cause population change?
(a) Births, deaths and marriage
(b) Births, deaths and migration
(c) Births, deaths and life expectancy

(iii) In 1999, the world population reached
(a) 1 billion
(b) 3 billion
(c) 6 billion

(iv) What is a population pyramid?
(a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
(b) When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings.
(c) Pattern of population distribution in large urban areas.

Ans.

(i) (c) The way in which people are spread across a given area. ✓
(ii) (b) Births, deaths and migration ✓
(iii) (c) 6 billion ✓
(iv) (a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population. ✓

Q.3 Complete the sentences below using some of the following words.
sparsely, favourable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely
When people are attracted to an area it becomes_________ populated.
Factors that influence this include________ climate; good supplies of _______ resources and ________land.

Ans. When people are attracted to an area it becomes densely populated.
Factors that influence this include favourable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What are the pyramids of the population? How do they enable us to understand a nation's population?

A population pyramid, also known as an age-sex pyramid, is a graphical depiction used to examine a nation’s population. The proportion of men and females in a population is based on their ages. The age group determines the proportion of the population’s economically active and dependent individuals. The pyramid has a large base and a narrow peak when the population’s birth and death rates are high. The population pyramid is narrow at the base and expansive at the top when a nation’s population has low birth and death rates. This looks like an inverted pyramid.

2. What may be the cause of the population rise in 1999, according to the sixth chapter of Geography for Class 8?

Populations increased in 1999 due to lower mortality rates brought on by better medical facilities, more food supply, and higher standards of living. The population increase was significant because of the high birth and low mortality rates.

3. Give two instances of human resources.

The most incredible resource of the nation may be its people. Although there are many resources all around us, it is up to us humans to turn them into something valuable. The Indian government has a Ministry of Human Resource Development. This illustrates how crucial people are to the nation as a resource. Additionally, the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna (PKVY), introduced in 2015, aims to teach one crore Indian youth between 2016 and 2020.