NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science Resources And Development Chapter 3

NCERT Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 – Mineral and Power Resources

Geography is a subject that intends to explore the Earth, sources of energy, environments and relations with living beings. It is a subject included in the NCERT CBSE syllabus with a considerable weightage. In general, Geography is fun, and students learn about the science behind lands, habitats and features of the Earth. Hence, it is essential to refer to suitable study materials while preparing for examinations. It is a subject that cannot be remembered by mugging up. Every concept needs to be understood in a certain way so that questions can be answered well. 

Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 is all about mineral and power resources. It explains the definition and concepts of minerals as power resources on Earth. 

Extramarks’ is the go-to platform for lakhs of students who rely on our excellent online study resources.

NCERT solutions are a comprehensive set of subject and chapter specific notes, explanations, questions and answers, and revision notes prepared by our subject experts. 

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 provides detailed notes for understanding the chapter of Mineral and Power Resources. The solution will also cover answers to all questions included in NCERT textbooks, workbooks and from previous years exam papers. 

Key Topics Covered In NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 3

Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 is all about mineral and power resources. It explains the definition and concepts of minerals as power resources on Earth. Students can further explore more study material on the Extramarks’ website. 

Below are few of the important topics which have been covered in our NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 study solutions:


Minerals are naturally occurring substances with specific chemical compositions. These are formed on Earth under varying conditions. 

Properties of Minerals:

  • Occurred naturally from the Earth.
  • Minerals are a non-renewable resource.
  • They can be classified according to their physical properties. 
  • Minerals are inorganic.
  • Minerals are solid in state.

Types of Minerals:

Minerals are divided into two parts based on their composition, which are:

  1. Metallic minerals
  2. Non-metallic minerals

Metallic minerals:

These minerals contain metals in their raw form. Metallic minerals can be divided into two types: 

  • Ferrous
  • Non-ferrous 

-Ferrous minerals contain iron, for Example, iron ore, manganese and chromites.

-Non-ferrous minerals do not contain iron in it. For Example, gold, silver, copper, etc. 

Non-metallic minerals:

Non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. For Example, limestone, coal, petroleum, etc. 

Our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 has explained the differences between metallic and non-metallic minerals in further detail along with examples. 

Conventional and Non-Conventional Resources:

Conventional resources are also known as non-renewable resources. These resources exist in nature but are in limited quantities. These include coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear power, etc. These resources are finite but still capture the majority of the market. However, the use of such resources leads to environmental damage by increasing the emission of greenhouse gases. 

Non-conventional resources are also known as renewable resources. They include solar energy and wind energy. The resources are pollution-free and do not damage the environment when used. Non-convention resources of energy can be generated again and again, and they do not exhaust. 

Ore: Ores are the rocks from where minerals are extracted. There are different types of rocks, such as igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Different minerals occur from different rocks. Igneous and metamorphic rocks are those that form plateaus. Ores of metallic minerals are found in them. 

There is a big shift happening from conventional to renewable energy sources. From our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 3, students will get to learn about why the human race should rely more on renewable energy sources in the coming years. 

Energy and Its Sources:

Energy is a phenomenon which is used to get work done. Energy exists in various forms like mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, etc. Energy sources include wind, sun, biogas, thermal (heat), etc. However, energy usage depends entirely on the availability of raw materials and application location. 

Following are some Examples of energy sources that can be used in those specific regions:

  • For rural areas: For areas rural, where there is a limited reach of technology and raw material supply, energy sources like coal, solar energy, bio-gas and firewood can be used. 
  • For coastal areas: Coastal areas are surrounded by water, air and land. Hence, energy sources like wind, petroleum and tidal power can be used. 
  • For arid areas: In arid regions, geothermal power and solar energy are the most suitable energy sources. 

Students can score better marks in examinations by understanding the context and weightage. To help with this process, Extramarks’ has also covered the important exam-specific questions in our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 3. 

Energy Conservation: 

With the increasing energy demand, it is crucial to use the energy resources efficiently to conserve for future generations. Moreover, the energy resources being used must create less impact on environmental damage. Hence, renewable energy sources must be used in daily life. They are non-extinct and do not cause harm to the environment. 

Following are some ways that can help save energy at home during daily usage:

  • Switching off electrical appliances when not in use. Electrical appliances = TV, lights, fan, etc.
  • Closing tap water when not in use. 
  • Use a pressure cooker instead of electric machines.
  • Using a bicycle or environment-friendly object for short commutes. 
  • Using refrigerators, Air conditioners, lift as least as possible.

NCERT Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 3: Questions and Answers

Extramarks’ study materials contain a lot of self-practice exercises. These exercises cover different formats of questions from NCERT textbook and previous exam papers.

All the questions will help the student to have a thorough understanding. It also covers the previous years’ questions from the CBSE board exams. The step-by-step detailed information given for each answer helps the students to revise the concepts thoroughly.

Students can get access to the questions and answers from our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 by clicking on below links:

  • Geography Class 8 Chapter 3: Objective-type questions
  • Geography Class 8 Chapter 3: Short answer type questions
  • Geography Class 8 Chapter 3: Long answer type questions

Along with NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 3, Extramarks also provides study material for all subjects and classes. Whether you are studying for CBSE or state Board Examinations or competitive Examinations like JEE or NEET, you are at the right place. Extramarks’, with their expert teams, provide online study resources to help students in their studies. 

Students can click on the respective links to find Solutions for all Classes. 

Key Features of NCERT Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 3

By referring to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 3, students will benefit in the following ways:

  • It covers all the chapter end questions along with their comprehensive answers explained with solved examples
  • The expert team at Extramarks’ prepares all the study materials.
  • Extramarks’ host Solutions and study notes for all subjects and all Classes. 
  • The solutions are prepared in a simple and easy-to-understand manner.
  • All solutions follow the latest guidelines of CBSE. 
  • Students will get to know the basic concepts clearly, which will help them understand complex topics in the future.
  • By revising the notes, students will build up the confidence required for attempting questions during Examinations. 
  • The solution sets and study notes are short and to the point. Hence, they can be revised effortlessly in a short span of time. 
NCERT Solutions Class 8 (Geography – Resource and Development) Chapter-wise List
Chapter 1 – Resources
Chapter 2 – Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Resources
Chapter 3 – Mineral and Power Resources
Chapter 4 – Agriculture
Chapter 5 – Industries
Chapter 6 – Human Resources

Q.1 Answer the following questions.

(i) Name any three common minerals used by you every day.

(ii) What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?

(iii) Name two regions rich in natural gas resources.

(iv) Which sources of energy would you suggest for

(a) rural areas (b) coastal areas (c) Arid regions

(v) Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.


(i) Three common minerals used by us in day to day life are iron, aluminum, gold, salt, etc.

(ii) Rocks from which minerals are mined profitably are known as ores. The ores of metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus.

(iii) Regions rich in natural gas resources are Russia,Norway, UK and the Netherlands.

(iv) (a) Rural areas:Sources of energy that can be used in rural areas are fire wood, coal, solar energy and biogas.

(b) Coastal areas: Tidal energy, wind energy and petroleum can be used in coastal areas.

(c) Arid regions: Geothermal energy and solar energy can be used in arid regions .

(v) Five ways in which we can save energy at home are:

1.Turn off the lights and fans when not needed.

2. Walk or use bicycle to travel short distances to save fuel.

3. Use staircase instead of lift.

4. While cooking, close the vessel to reduce cooking time.

5. Close the tap when water is not in use.

Q.2 Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of minerals?

(a) They are created by natural processes.

(b) They have a definite chemical composition.

(c) They are inexhaustible.

(d) Their distribution is uneven.

(ii) Which one of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?

(a) Bolivia

(b) Ghana

(c) Chile

(d) Zimbabwe

(iii) Which one of the following practices will NOT conserve LPG in your kitchen?

(a) Soaking the dal for some time before cooking it.

(b) Cooking food in a pressure cooker.

(c) Keeping the vegetables chopped before lighting the gas for cooking.

(d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.


(i) (c) They are inexhaustible

(ii) (c) Chile

(iii) (d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame

Q.3 Give reasons.

(i) Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.

(ii) Most industries are concentrated around coal mines.

(iii) Petroleum is referred to as “black gold”.

(iv) Quarrying can become a major environmental concern.


(i) Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams. This is because when dams are constructed large areas surrounding the dam are submerged in water. This results in large scale destruction of natural vegetation, wildlife and agricultural land. Construction of dams also displaces settlements. Floods and earthquake threats appear large. Thus, all these aspects must be carefully looked into before constructing a dam.

(ii) Most industries are concentrated around coal mines because coal is an important source of energy. It is used as raw material in various industries. So to reduce the transportation cost, most of the industries are located near coal mines.

(iii) Petroleum is referred to as “black gold” because it is black in colour and the derivatives obtained from it are extremely valuable. Varieties of products are obtained from petroleum, like diesel, petrol, kerosene, wax, plastics and lubricants. These products are very useful in our day to day life.

(iv) Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out, by the process known as quarrying. Quarrying can become a major environmental concern because it destroys the flora and fauna around it. It destroys the humus of soil, which is required for the growth of plants and crops. It produces dust, which causes air pollution and also produces noise pollution.

Q.4 Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Conventional and non conventional sources of energy

(ii) Biogas and natural gas

(iii) Ferrous and nonferrous minerals

(iv) Metallic and nonmetallic minerals



Conventional sources of energy Non-conventional sources of energy
These sources of energy are used commonly for long time. These sources are developed in modern times and are not commonly used
These are generally non-renewable These are renewable sources of energy
These are mostly polluting. These are mostly non-polluting sources of energy.
Example: Coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc. Example: Solar energy, wind energy, etc.


Biogas Natural gas
Biogas is a gaseous fuel formed from organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste. Natural gas is found with petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.
It is a non-conventional source of energy It is a conventional source of energy.
It is easily available in rural areas. Very few countries in the world have sufficient natural gas reserves of their own.
It is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and produces huge amount of organic manure each year. It is used as a domestic and industrial fuel.


Ferrous minerals Non-ferrous minerals
Ferrous minerals contain iron. Non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron, but contain some other metal.
Example: Iron, manganese, chromites, etc. Example: Gold, silver, copper, etc.


Metallic minerals Non-metallic minerals
The metallic minerals contain metal in raw form. The non-metallic minerals do not contain metals.
Example: Iron, bauxite, gold, etc. Example: Limestone, mica, gypsum, etc.

Please register to view this section