NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science Resources And Development Chapter 2

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2

Geography involves the study of the ecosystems, regions, peoples, and landscapes of the planet. Many people believe that Geography is the oldest of all the disciplines since it is pretty reasonable to claim that humans have always been curious to explore the planet. This claim has some further support because the Greek scholar Eratosthenes is regarded as the originator of Geography because he was the one who first used the term.

Chapter 2 of Class 8 Geography is Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources. The influence of various natural resources on our daily life is discussed in this chapter. Natural resources like land, soil, water, and so on are all around us. The diversity of each of these resources varies from location to region. These resources largely influence our lifestyle. Even if you may be in a densely populated area, there are still unoccupied or poorly populated places. Students may refer to Extramarks Geography Chapter 2 Class 8 Solutions to discover more about land, soil, water, natural vegetation, and wildlife resources.

For a subject as exciting as Geography, Extramarks has developed NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 2.   These solutions are made in such a way that they meet all the requirements of the students. Subject experts have developed these solutions meticulously in such a way that they can get to-the-point answers without wasting much time on a single subject.

Not just Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 NCERT Solutions, Extramarks provides a repository of resources such as NCERT books, CBSE revision notes, CBSE sample papers, CBSE previous year question papers, and more can be easily found on the Extramarks website for all classes.

Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2

Mentioned below are the key topics that are covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2– Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources:

  • Land
  • Soil
  • Water 
  • Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Let us look at Extramarks in-depth information on each subtopic in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2- Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources.


This section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 discusses in-depth about land and its uses.

One of our most valuable natural resources is the land. Only 30% of the earth’s surface is covered by it, and only a small portion of it is habitable. . Rough terrain, steep mountain slopes, logging-prone lowlands, desert regions, and heavily forested places are typically sparsely populated or deserted.

Land Use

The land is utilized for various activities, including farming, forestry, mining, building homes and roads, and establishing industries. Land usage is a popular word for this.

  • Topography, soil, temperature, minerals, and water availability are physical factors that affect land use.
  • Population and technology are two examples of human factors influencing land use.

According to who owns it, land may be divided into private and public domains. Individuals possess private property, but communities hold community land for purposes like gathering fodder, fruits, nuts, or medicinal plants. Common property resources is another term for community lands. Even though there is a limited land supply, people are forced to infringe on it to create retail malls and commercial districts in urban regions and extend agricultural land in rural areas. Significant problems, including land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, and desertification, are also brought on by this increase in agriculture and building operations.

Conservation of Land Resource

Large-scale degradation of the forest cover and other natural resources is caused by the expanding population and its attendant demands. The typical techniques for protecting land resources are listed below:

  • Controlled application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
  • Monitoring for overgrazing
  • Afforestation
  • Reclaiming land

The above section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 talks about land and how to conserve it. To get more details on the topic, register with Extramarks today.


In the following section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2, the soil issue is discussed.

The thin, granular layer covers the earth’s surface and is directly related to the land. Landforms determine the kind of soil. Organic material, minerals, and weathered rocks that have been deposited on the ground because of weathering make up soil. The appropriate proportions of organic matter and minerals make the soil productive.


Landslides, which commonly occur in connection with earthquakes, floods, and volcanoes, are the large-scale movement of rock, debris, or soil down a slope. A protracted rainstorm can also bring on a landslide.

Mitigation Mechanism

We now have the knowledge and tools necessary to manage landslides effectively because of advancements in scientific methodology. Following are some examples of general  mitigation  techniques of landslides:

  • Hazard mapping helps identify landslide-prone locations. As a result, settlement development can be prevented in such locations.
  • Building a retaining wall will prevent the ground from sliding.
  • To stop a landslide, increase the vegetation cover.
  • Surface drainage management helps regulate landslide movement along with rain and spring flows.

Factors of Soil Formation

The initial rock composition and climatic variables are the most crucial elements in soil development. Topography, organic matter’s function, and soil composition’s duration are further considerations.

  • Relief: Ground accumulation is influenced by altitude and slope.
  • Parent Rock nature: Color, texture, mineral,  chemical properties, strength, and permeability are determined by the parent rock’s nature.
  • Climate: Temperature and precipitation impact the rate of impairment and humus formation.
  • Fauna, Flora, and Microorganisms: The growth of humus is influenced by flora, fauna, and microorganisms.
  • Time is taken for soil formation: The length of time it takes for the soil to form determines the thickness of soil profile.

Degradation of Soil and some Conservation methods

The most significant risks to the soil as a resource are soil erosion and depletion. Both natural and human sources can cause soil deterioration. The following factors contribute to soil degradation:

  • Overgrazing
  • Rain wash
  • Excessive use of chemical pesticides or fertilizers
  • Floods and landslides
  • Deforestation 

The following are some measures of   soil conservation:

  • Intercropping: To prevent the soil from being washed away by rain, various crops are cultivated in alternate rows and are seeded at different times.
  • Mulching: A covering of organic material, such as straw, is placed over the bare ground in the spaces between the plants; this keeps the soil wet.
  • Terrace farming: To provide level areas for growing crops and prevent soil erosion and surface runoff, steep slopes are built with wide flat steps or terraces.
  • Contour barriers: Barriers are constructed following contours using stones, grass, and soil. In front of the barriers, trenches are built to collect water.
  • Rock dam: Rocks are piled up to reduce the speed of the water’s flow and stop gullies and soil erosion.
  • Shelterbelts: Rows of trees are planted in coastal and arid locations to reduce wind movement and protect soil cover.
  • Contour ploughing: Forming a natural barrier to prevent water from flowing down the slope by ploughing according to the contours.

The above section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 explains soil and its conservation methods.


NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2  of the section below explains water and the issues of water availability.

Water, an essential renewable natural resource, covers 34% of the globe’s surface. About two-thirds of the world’s surface is covered by oceans, which are home to many plant and animal species. It is, however, salty and unfit for human consumption. Only 2.7% of the world’s freshwater is found in freshwater bodies, 70% of which are inaccessible ice sheets and glaciers in mountainous regions like Antarctica and Greenland. As a result, barely 1% of freshwater is fit for human consumption.

The amount of water on earth cannot be increased or decreased, and its overall volume is constant. Its abundance seems to change solely due to the continual mobility it undergoes due to the processes of evaporation, precipitation, and runoff, which cycle it through the seas, the air, the land, and back again.  This is known as the “water cycle.”

Problems with water availability

The availability of fresh water is a problem throughout the world. Water shortage is a significant issue in nations situated in climate zones most prone to droughts. Water shortages can also result from changes in seasonal or yearly precipitation patterns or overuse and contamination of water sources.

Conservation of Water Resources

 Efforts have been made to protect this resource so that people may access sources of clean, sufficient water:

  • Forests and other types of vegetation help restore subsurface water supplies by slowing surface runoff. Another way to prevent surface runoff is through water harvesting.
  • To reduce losses from water seepage, the canals used for field irrigation should be well-lined.
  • By limiting water losses due to seepage and evaporation, sprinklers efficiently irrigate the area.
  • Drip or trickle irrigation is highly beneficial in arid areas with high evaporation rates.
  • By using these irrigation methods, the precious water resource may be preserved.

The above section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 raises the issue of water and its conservation. To know more, register on Extramarks website.

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Natural Vegetation and Wildlife have been explained in this section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2.

Natural plants and animals live only in the small biosphere—the region where the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere meet. Living things in the biosphere are connected and rely on one another to survive. Ecology is the name given to this system that sustains life. Animals, birds, insects, and aquatic life forms fall under the wildlife category. In addition to eating insects, birds also serve as decomposers. The vulture is a scavenger and a crucial environmental cleaner since it can eat dead animals. Therefore, all animals—large or small—are essential to preserving the ecosystem’s equilibrium.

Distribution of Natural Vegetation

Temperature and moisture are the two main factors that affect plant growth. Forests, grasslands, scrubby areas, and tundra are the four primary forms of vegetation in the globe.

Giant trees grow in locations with high rainfall. Therefore, forests are often considered places with abundant freshwater resources. In areas with moderate rainfall, short, stunted trees and bushes develop as the number of moisture declines, reducing trees’ size and density. Thorny bushes and shrubs flourish in arid locations where there is little rainfall.

Conservation of Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Natural habitats for plants and animals may disappear due to climatic changes and human involvement. Some natural and human processes that hasten the extinction of these resources include deforestation, soil erosion, construction projects, forest fires, tsunamis, and landslides. Poaching, which causes a dramatic drop in the population of a specific species, is another significant issue. Our native species and plants are protected by national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves. To prevent the depletion of the priceless resource, streams, lakes, and wetlands must be conserved.

At the regional and local levels, awareness initiatives like social forestry and Vanamohatasava are also formed. To help them understand the habitat of various species, schools urge their students to go bird watching and to nature camps. Laws prohibiting the trade of animals and birds and their slaughter have been passed in several nations. In India, it is against the law to kill lions, tigers, deer, big Indian bustards, and peacocks. Meanwhile, the CITES international treaty has been developed, which specifies the number of animal and bird species where trade is restricted.

In the above section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2, the conservation methods of natural vegetation and wildlife have been explained in detail.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 Exercise and Solutions

Extramarks, one of the leading educational platforms, has credibility lies in providing the best study material to the students. Its reliable and trusted learning resources have gained popularity among teachers, students, and their parents. Furthermore, extramarks also provide study material for all classes and competitive exams so that students don’t have to look elsewhere to supplement their studies for any kind of exam.

By accessing NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2, students can easily understand Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources.

Along with this, students can also refer to other solutions for primary and secondary classes:

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2

Extramarks NCERT Solutions are quite popular among students. These solutions meet all students’ expectations as they prepare for their upcoming exams. All the topics are covered in the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 2. Extramarks NCERT Solutions are here to stay.  Here’s why:

  • The experts at Extramarks follow all guidelines laid by CBSE to draft solutions beneficial to students.
  • Extramarks NCERT Solutions are prepared by subject experts for last-minute revision to help students conveniently recall the crucial points in the exam.
  • These Solutions help students in revising their concepts so that students can study from it without any hassle and saves time for other subjects as well.
NCERT Solutions Class 8 (Geography – Resource and Development) Chapter-wise List
Chapter 1 – Resources
Chapter 2 – Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Resources
Chapter 3 – Mineral and Power Resources
Chapter 4 – Agriculture
Chapter 5 – Industries
Chapter 6 – Human Resources

Q.1 Answer the following questions

(i) Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation?

(ii) Write any two reasons for land degradation today.

(iii) Why is land considered an important resource?

(iv) Name any two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals.

(v) Suggest three ways to conserve water.


(i)The two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation are temperature and rainfall .These factors influence rate the of weathering and humus.

(ii) Factors contributing to land degradation are deforestation, overgrazing, and the indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers in agricultural lands.

(iii)Land is considered as an important resource because wide variety of flora and fauna is found on land. Land is used for various purposes by human beings, such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses and roads, and setting up of industries.

(iv)Steps taken by the government to conserve plants and animals are as follows:

  1. Establishment of National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves to protect our natural vegetation andwildlife.
  2. Killing of lions, tigers, deers, great Indian bustards and peacocks have been banned. Government has passed laws for declaring killing as well as trade of birds and animals as illegal.

(v)Three ways to conserve water are as follows:

  1. Sewage, agricultural chemicals and industrial effluents should be treated suitably before releasing them in water bodies.
  2. Rainwater harvesting helps in conserving water.
  3. Afforestation, as forest and other vegetation cover slow the surface runoff and replenish underground water.
  4. The canals, used for irrigation, should be properly lined to minimise losses by water seepage.

Q.2 (i) Which one of the following is NOT a factor of soil formation? (a) time (b) soil texture (c) organic matter

(ii) Which one of the following methods is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes? (a) shelter belts (b) mulching (c) terrace cultivation

(iii) Which one of the following is NOT in favour of the conservation of nature? (a) switch off the bulb when not in use (b) close the tap immediately after using (c) dispose polypacks after shopping


(i)(b) soil texture ☑

(ii)(c) terrace cultivation ☑

(iii)(c) dispose polypacks after shopping☑

Q.3 Match the following

(i) Land use (a) prevent soil erosion
(ii) Humus (b) narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere
(iii) Rock dams (c) productive use of land
(iv) Biosphere (d) organic matter deposited on top soil
(e) contour ploughing


(i) Land use (c) productive use of land
(ii) Humus (d) organic matter deposited on top soil
(iii) Rock dams (a) prevent soil erosion
(iv) Biosphere (b) narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere

Q.4 State whether the given statement is true or false.If true, write the reasons.

(i) Ganga–Brahmaputra plain of India is an overpopulated region.

(ii)Water availability per person in India is declining.

(iii)Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the windmovement is called intercropping.

(iv)Human interference and changes of climate can maintain the ecosystem.


(i)True. Reason: The Ganga-Brahmaputra plain has even topography and highly fertile soil. Hence, it can support a huge population. Water availability per person in India is declining.

(ii)True. Reason: The population of India has been growing but availability of water has been declining. Water shortage may be a consequence of variation in seasonal or annual precipitation or the scarcity is caused by over-exploitation and contamination of water sources.

(iii)False. Reason: Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called shelter belt.

(iv)False.Reason: Changes of climate and human interferences can cause the loss of natural habitats for the plants and animals, hence destroy the ecosystem.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Name the Geography chapters in NCERT for Class 8, not including Chapter 2.

There are 6 chapters in the Class 8 NCERT Geography book. As follows:

  • Chapter No. 1 – Resource
  • Chapter No. 3 – Mineral and Power Resources
  • Chapter No. 4 – Agriculture
  • Chapter No. 5 – Industries
  • Chapter No. 6 – Human Resources

Students can refer to the NCERT solutions by Extramarks prepared by experienced faculty experts to become well-versed in Social Studies. These solutions will definitely make a difference in their studies and help them excel in their examinations.

2. How can the fear of Geography (Social Science) be reduced?

Many students struggle while preparing for Geography. Extramarks is working towards simplifying things for all the students so that they can develop interest in the subject and learn without much difficulty.  Extramarks has  made the subject easier by providing end text answers to all the questions by subject matter experts. Accessing the NCERT Solutions  would make it easier  to learn and grasp with better understanding and definitely help in achieving higher grades. Extramarks NCERT Solutions are one of the key elements of the Class 8 Geography Study Material.