NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science Resources And Development Chapter 5

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5

As one of the sciences with the most extraordinary scope, geography covers practically all aspects of the planet. For instance, it looks at how our societies function, how human decisions impact nature, how the Earth changes physically, how humans develop, and much more! It provides more information than simply a simple “What’s there?” Additionally, it describes who is there, how long they have been there, and why they enjoy it so much.

Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 is Industries. We frequently use various kinds of materials in our daily lives. We receive all of these items after a long process of manufacturing. . The manufacturing process aims to turn raw resources into completed goods that people can use. Several industries produce these goods. Therefore, students must understand more about categorizing sectors based on ownership and other topics. That is precisely what students will learn in Geography Chapter 5 Class 8. Additionally, students will discover how to categorize industries based on the raw materials used.

We at Extramarks understand the value of NCERT Solutions and have carefully curated and developed NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 5.  Extramarks Solutions are a very useful guide that works wonders for the students and will definitely help them in achieving high grades in Geography.

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Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5

Following are the key topics that are covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5- Industries:

Secondary activities or manufacturing change raw materials into finished products of more value to people. For e.g. the paper made from pulp and cloth made from cotton have had value added to them at each stage of the manufacturing process. In this way the finished product has more value and utility than the raw material that it is made from.

Industry refers to economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services.

Classification of Industries

Industries are classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership.

Based on Raw Materials:

  • Agro-based industries: The food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products, and leather industries are a few examples of agro-based businesses that utilise plant- and animal-based goods as their raw materials.
  • Mineral-based industries: Mineral-based industries, or primary industries, use mineral ores as their primary raw materials. The products made by these industries feed other industries. For example, iron, produced from iron ore, is used as a raw material to make a variety of other products, including heavy equipment, construction materials, and railroad coaches.
  • Marine-based industries: Marine-based industries employ goods from the sea and oceans as raw resources. Examples include businesses that process seafood or produce fish oil.
  • Forest-based industries: Industries related to forests include pulp and paper, medicines, furniture, and structures. Forest-based industries such as pharmaceuticals, furniture, buildings, pulp and paper,  use forest products as raw materials.

Based on Size:

Size is determined by the amount of money invested, the number of people employed, and the number of goods produced; it is divided into small-scale and large-scale industries. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 explains that cottage industries produce goods for the home by hand, by artisans; examples include basket weaving, pottery, and other handicrafts.

  • Small scale industries: Smaller scale industries employ less money and technology.
  • Large-scale industries: Small-scale industries like silk weaving and food processing employ   less capital and technology. Still, big-scale industries like the production of vehicles and heavy machinery use superior technology and  produce large scale quantities of goods.

Based on Ownership:

  • Private-sector industries: Private sector industries are run and owned by one person or a small group of people.
  • Public sector industries: Government-owned and -run public sector businesses include Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.
  • Joint sector industries: Joint Sector Industries, such as Maruti Udyog Limited, are jointly owned and run by the government, as well as specific people or groups of people.
  • Cooperative sector industries: Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are cooperative sector businesses owned and run by producers or suppliers of raw material , workers, or both.

Factors Affecting the Location of Industries

In the following section of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5, factors affecting the location of industries have been discussed. The government provides incentives like subsidized power, lower transport costs, and other infrastructure so that industries may be in underdeveloped areas. Industrialization frequently results in the development and growth of towns and cities. Availability of raw materials, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market plays crucial roles in the location of Industries and are typically located in areas where these are readily available.

Industrial system

Inputs, processes, and outputs make up the industrial system.

  • Inputs include labour, raw material, and infrastructural costs for things like land, transportation, and power.
  • Procedures cover various actions that transform raw materials into final goods.
  • The final product and the money made from it are considered outputs.

Industrial regions

Western and central Europe, eastern Europe, eastern North America, and eastern Asia (Major Industrial Regions of the World) are examples of industrial regions that form when several industries locate close to one another and benefit from their proximity. These regions are found in temperate regions, close to seaports, and particularly near  coalfields.

Industrial regions in India  include – the Mumbai-Pune cluster, the Bangalore-Tamil Nadu area, the Hugli region, the Ahmedabad-Baroda region, the Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, the Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region, and the industrial cluster in Kollam and Thiruvananthapuram.

Distribution of major industries

The three most prominent industries in the world are iron and steel, textiles, and information technology. Nations that have the largest reserves of iron and steel industries are Germany, the United States, China, Japan, and Russia. Nations that are key contributors to the textile industry  are India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, which are the main centres for the textile industry. Silicon Valley in Central California and the Bangalore region of India are considered the two important centres for the information technology industry. .

Iron and Steel industry

As elaborated by the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5, the iron and steel industry is a feeder industry, meaning that the raw materials utilised in its production are used as inputs by other industries. Coal, Iron ore, limestone, availability of labour, capital, site and other infrastructure are key to deciding the right locations for setting up the industry. Iron ore is transformed into steel through a multi-stage process that begins with smelting in a blast furnace and continues with refinement. Steel is the end product (may be used by other industries as raw material).

Steel: Steel is strong, versatile, and can be readily formed into wire or other shapes by adding small amounts of other metals like copper, nickel, and aluminium. It is often called the backbone of modern industry.

Important steel-producing centres:

In a territory that spans four states—West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh—are  steel producing centres such as Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, and BokaroThe other important steel centres utilising local resources are – Salem in Tamil Nadu, Vijay Nagar and Bhadravati in Karnataka, and Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.


After independence, the government took the initiative and established various iron and steel companies. Before 1947, the only privately held iron and steel mill in the nation was Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO). TISCO was founded in 1907 at Sakchi, Jharkhand, not far from the confluence of the Subarnarekha and Kharkai rivers. Later, Jamshedpur was given the name Sakchi.Geographically speaking, Jamshedpur is the country’s best-located iron and steel hub. 

The steel plant at Sakchi was chosen for several reasons as suggested by NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5:

  • On the railway line between Bengal and Nagpur, Kalimati station is only 32 kilometers away from Sakchi.
  • Due to its proximity to coal and manganese deposits, and iron ore reserves, Kolkata offers a sizable market.
  • In addition to iron ore, limestone, dolomite, and manganese from Odisha and Chhattisgarh, TISCO also obtains coal from the Jharia coalfields.
  • The rivers Kharkai and Subarnarekha provided an adequate amount of water.
  • Adequate capital was provided by the government for its later development. .


The famous Great Lakes waterway, one of the world’s best routes for shipping ore cheaply, lies between these mines and Pittsburgh. Trains carry the ore from the Great Lakes to the Pittsburgh area. Ohio, the Monogahela, and the Allegheny rivers provide an adequate water supply. Pittsburgh is a crucial steel city in the United States of America. It benefits from its geographical location. Raw materials like coal are readily available locally, while iron ore comes from the iron mines in Minnesota, about 1500 km away. Besides steel mills, Pittsburgh has many other factories that use steel as their raw material to make different products.

Cotton textile industry

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 discusses the cotton textile industry in the following section.

The textile business is classified on the basis of  raw materials needed to weave fabric, an old craft. Cloth is made of cotton, wool, silk, jute, and flax. -Fibres can be either natural or man- made. . Wool, silk, cotton, linen, and jute are obtained from  natural fibres. Manufactured fibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic, and rayon are man made fibres.  Until the industrial revolution in the 18th century, cotton cloth was made using hand-spinning techniques (wheels). In the 18th century, power-loomed and facilitated the development of the cotton textile industry, first in Britain and then in other parts of the world.  Good quality producers of cotton textiles include India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.


Ahmedabad is located in Gujarat on the banks of the Sabarmati River, where the first mill was built in 1859 and  the second-largest textile city in India after Mumbai. It is also known as the “Manchester of India” and is situated close to a cotton-growing region to ensure easy access to raw materials; ideal climate for spinning and weaving; flat terrain and easy access to land. Factors mentioned earlier make Ahmedabad a suitable place for establishment of  mills. Ahmedabad also has easy access to both skilled and semi-skilled labour; a well-developed road and rail network. 

Issues in Ahmedabad textile mills – Several textile mills closed down owing to the advent of new textile centres in the country and the non-up-gradation of equipment and technology in the mills of Ahmedabad. The neighbouring Mumbai port allows the import of machinery and the export of cotton textiles.


Osaka, commonly referred to as the “Manchester of Japan,” is a significant textile hub of  Japan. Below are some geographical considerations that  helped Osaka’s textile industry to grow:

  • A large plain near Osaka made land easily accessible for the expansion of cotton mills.
  • Spinning and weaving are best suited to warm, humid climates.
  • River Yodo supplies enough water for the mills, and there is no labour shortage.
  • The port’s location makes it easier to import raw cotton and export textiles.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 states that the Osaka textile industry depends entirely on imported raw materials. Egypt, India, China, and the United States all export cotton. Due to its high quality and affordable pricing, the completed product is mainly exported and has a healthy market. Osaka used to be a significant textile hub for the nation. Still, in recent years other sectors, including iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, vehicles, electrical equipment, and cement, have taken over the cotton textile industry.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5- Exercises and Solutions

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Key features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5

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NCERT Solutions Class 8 (Geography – Resource and Development) Chapter-wise List
Chapter 1 – Resources
Chapter 2 – Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Resources
Chapter 3 – Mineral and Power Resources
Chapter 4 – Agriculture
Chapter 5 – Industries
Chapter 6 – Human Resources

Q.1 Answer the following questions.

(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?

(ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?

(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?

(iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?


(i) Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods (iron and steel industry), extraction of minerals (coal mining industry) or the provision of services (tourism industry).

(ii) The main factors, which influence the location of an industry, are the availability of raw material, land, water, labour,power, capital, transport and market.

(iii) Iron and steel industry is called the backbone of modern industry because the production and consumption of iron and steel reflects the level of industrialisation and economic development of a country.All the other industries depend on it for their machinery.Almost everything that we use is either made of iron and steel or by using devices and tools made of steel. It provides raw material for making industrial machinery, electrical machinery, defence equipments, railway tracks, railway engines, bridges, dams, shops, automobiles, houses, etc.Steel is required to manufacture a variety of consumer goods like bicycles, fans, furniture, tractors, etc.

(iv) Cotton textile industry has rapidly expanded in Mumbai due to following reasons:

  1. Availability and proximity to raw material: Cotton grows in large quantities in the Deccan Plateau that lie close to cotton mills.
  2. Warm and moist climate: Humid coastal climate favours the spinning of cotton yarn.
  3. Transport: Mumbai is well connected to the country by rail, road and air. It has excellent port facilities for import and export.
  4. Labour: Large skilled labour force is available.

Q.2 Tick the correct answer.

(i) Fort Gloster is located in

(a) West Bengal

(b) California

(c) Gujarat

(ii) Which one of the following is a natural fibre?

(a) Nylon

(b) Jute

(c) Acrylic


(i) (a) West Bengal

(ii) (b) Jute

Q.3 Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Agro-based and mineral based industry

(ii) Public sector and joint sector industry



Agro-based Industry Mineral Based Industry
These industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. These industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials.
Example: Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries Example: Iron and steel industry


Public Sector Industry Joint Sector Industry
Industries are owned and operated by the government. Industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
Example: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited Example: Maruti Udyog Limited

Q.4 Give two examples of the following in the space provided.

(i) Raw materials: _________ and ___________

(ii) End product: __________ and ___________

(iii) Tertiary activities: _________ and _______

(iv) Agro-based industries: ________ and _______

(v) Cottage industries: ________ and__________

(vi) Co-operatives: _________ and ___________


(i) Raw materials: Iron and cotton

(ii) End product: Steel and textiles

(iii) Tertiary activities: Transport and banking

(iv) Cottage industries: Basket weaving and pottery

(v) Co-operatives: Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy

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