NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Social Science Chapter 5 : Industries


Distinguish between the followings. (i) Agro-based and mineral based industry (ii) Public sector and joint sector industry



                         Agro-based Industry

                 Mineral Based Industry

These industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials.

These industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials.

Example: Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries

Example: Iron and steel industry


                                         Public Sector Industry

                                                  Joint Sector Industry

Industries are owned and operated by the government.

Industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.

Example: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited

Example: Maruti Udyog Limited


Tick the correct answer. (i) Fort Gloster is located in (a) West Bengal (b) California (c) Gujarat (ii) Which one of the following is a natural fibre? (a) Nylon (b) Jute (c) Acrylic


(i) (a) West Bengal

(ii) (b) Jute


Give two examples of the following in the space provided. (i) Raw materials: _________ and ___________ (ii) End product: __________ and ___________ (iii) Tertiary activities: _________ and _______ (iv) Agro-based industries: ________ and _______ (v) Cottage industries: ________ and__________ (vi) Co-operatives: _________ and ___________


(i) Raw materials: Iron and cotton

(ii) End product: Steel and textiles

(iii) Tertiary activities: Transport and banking

(iv) Cottage industries: Basket weaving and pottery

(v) Co-operatives: Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy


Answer the following questions. (i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’? (ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry? (iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why? (iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?


(i) Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods (iron and steel industry), extraction of minerals (coal mining industry) or the provision of services (tourism industry).

(ii) The main factors, which influence the location of an industry, are the availability of raw material, land, water, labour,power, capital, transport and market.

(iii) Iron and steel industry is called the backbone of modern industry because the production and consumption of iron and steel reflects the level of industrialisation and economic development of a country.All the other industries depend on it for their machinery.Almost everything that we use is either made of iron and steel or by using devices and tools made of steel. It provides raw material for making industrial machinery, electrical machinery, defence equipments, railway tracks, railway engines, bridges, dams, shops, automobiles, houses, etc.Steel is required to manufacture a variety of consumer goods like bicycles, fans, furniture, tractors, etc.

(iv) Cotton textile industry has rapidly expanded in Mumbai due to following reasons:

  1. Availability and proximity to raw material: Cotton grows in large quantities in the Deccan Plateau that lie close to cotton mills.
  2. Warm and moist climate: Humid coastal climate favours the spinning of cotton yarn.
  3. Transport: Mumbai is well connected to the country by rail, road and air. It has excellent port facilities for import and export.
  4. Labour: Large skilled labour force is available.
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