NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science Resources And Development Chapter 4

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture

Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 is about agriculture and its relevant information. In India, agriculture is the main occupation of many citizens. Nearly 70% of the rural population depends upon farming activities for their primary livelihood. One of humanity’s greatest achievements is agriculture, which enables us to grow a variety of fruits, vegetables, crops, and flowers without relying on outside sources of sustenance. This field has impacted majorly on primary world economics. It also aids in the economic growth of the country.

Geography is a moderate subject in difficulty. The paper mainly consists of two majorparts: 

  • Theory 
  • Map oriented questions 

Theory questions are directly derived from concepts stated in the NCERT textbook. Students need to understand the subject properly to answer the questions based on maps. Students can score good marks in examinations if they study adequately by referring to suitable study materials. 

One of the most reliable study tools for students nowadays is Extramarks. It aids students by providing study materials like NCERT solutions, chapter notes, revision notes, etc. that make the subject simple for them to comprehend. A quick revision of the notes is possible prior to exams. The NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 have been created by subject experts at Extramarks, and all study materials adhere to the most recent CBSE curriculum and NCERT standards.

Key Topics Covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4:

For students who want to study more productively and perform better on tests, the Extramarks’ NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 are a great resource. It will give students in-depth explanations for every question in the chapter and detailed information on each topic, enabling them to adequately prepare for their exams.

Below we have picked a few important elements from our NCERT Solutions for quick reference. Students can register on Extramarks’ website to get full access to our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4.


Agriculture is a primary activity where farmers grow crops that include vegetables, fruits and other plants. It serves as a primary resource for most people in rural areas. Being a primary resource, it concerns the growing, extraction and distribution of natural products. 

Factors influencing Agriculture:

Agriculture is dependent on various factors and resources. Soil, Water, Climate, and Population are some factors that influence agricultural activity. Also, depending upon various factors like soil, area and climate, different types of crops are grown in different regions. 

Types of Farming:

Farming is the activity where the soil is cultivated, and crops are grown as per the seasons and various patterns. Farming is broadly divided into two main categories:

  1. Subsistence farming
  2. Shifting cultivation

1. Subsistence farming:

This type of farming is done only to fulfil the family’s needs. Since the use is at the self-house level, the use of technology is minimal, creating a minimal output. 

Subsistence farming is further categorised into two types:

  1. Intensive subsistence farming
  2. Primitive Subsistence farming

For more details about types of farming, refer to Extramarks’ NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4. 

2. Shifting cultivation:

In this type of farming, by burning the vegetation present on the land, the farmer mixes the ashes into the soil and then cultivates the land. If the land becomes barren, the farmer moves to a new location. It is known as slash or burns.

Disadvantages of shifting cultivation:

  • Increases deforestation
  • Loss of fertility of the land
  • Soil erosion
  • Air pollution is due to the burning of trees and vegetation
  • For a large population, cultivation is insufficient

In different parts of the world, Shifting cultivation is known by different names as follows:

  • Jhumming – In northeast India
  • Milpa – In Mexico
  • Roca – In Brazil
  • Ladang – In Malaysia

To learn about farming types, students can read NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4, available on the Extramarks’ website. 

Plantation Agriculture:

A single crop is grown over the entire land in plantation agriculture. The crop may be tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton. Plantation agriculture is commercial farming where significant capital is required. The product obtained can be processed at the farm or any nearby factory. Hence to procure this farming, transportation is an important aspect. Some Examples of plantation agriculture are rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, and tea in India and Sri Lanka.

Fibre Crops:

The crops grown in the field for use as a fibre to make rope, clothes, etc., are termed as fibre crops. Jute and cotton are prominent examples of fibre crops. However, different climatic conditions are required to grow different types of fibre crops. 

Following are the climatic conditions required to grow cotton and jute. 

Crop/ Condition Temperature Rainfall Humidity
Jute High Heavy High
Cotton High Light No (Sunlight is required)

Types of Agriculture

There are different types of agriculture depending upon the type of crop being cultivated. Below are a few varieties of agriculture as covered in our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4.

  1. Agriculture: It involves the cultivation of the soil, raising crops and maintaining livestock.
  2. Sericulture: It’s known as silkworm commercial raising. Due to the high market price of silk sourced from farmers, it valued their revenue.
  3. Viticulture: This agriculture involves the cultivation of grapes. 
  4. Pisciculture: It includes breeding of fish in any constructed tanks or ponds.
  5. Horticulture: It involves growing vegetables, flowers and fruits meant for commercial purposes. 

Crops & Regions:

To meet a growing population’s requirements, various crops are grown in different regions. The crop to be grown are selected as per the climatic regions and available resources. Major food crops include rice, wheat, maize, and millets. Jute and cotton are under fibre crops. At the same time, beverage crops include tea and coffee.


It is the primary food crop grown in the world. Being the staple diet food of tropical & subtropical regions, rice needs high temperature, humidity and rainfall to grow adequately. 

Following countries lead in the production of rice:

  • China
  • India
  • Japan
  • Sri Lanka 
  • Egypt 


Wheat is another staple meal in some areas. For both the growth and harvesting processes, it needs moderate temperatures, rainfall, and sunshine. In India, wheat is grown throughout the winter months. Aside from those mentioned, it is also grown in the USA, Canada, Ukraine, Australia, Argentina, and Russia.


To grow maize, well-drained fertile regions are required with moderate temperature and rainfall. The main crop is extensively grown in India, North America, China, Brazil, Russia, Mexico and Canada. 


Cotton grows on two hundred and ten bright sunshine days. It requires high temperature, light rainfall and black alluvial soil. Countries like the USA, China, Pakistan, India, Egypt and Brazil are lead cotton producers. Cotton is majorly used as raw material in textile industries. 


Brazil is the lead producer of coffee, followed by India and Columbia. Coffee can be best grown on hill slopes with warm and wet climates. 


The best quantity of tea is produced in nations like India, China, Kenya, and Sri Lanka. In order to cultivate tea leaves, one of the most important crops that needs a cold environment with regular rainfall.

To learn more about food crops and their seasonal activities, log on to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4, published by Extramarks’. 

Important Notes:

  • Horticulture means growing fruits and vegetables.
  • Golden fibres include jute.
  • Brazil is the leading producer of coffee.
  • Primary farming activities are concerned with producing and extracting natural resources. They include agriculture, fishing, etc. 
  • Tertiary activities of farming provide support to primary and secondary sections. The services include banking, transport etc. 

One of the most prevalent occupations among rural Indians is agriculture. It is crucial that students have a profound understanding of this chapter. Students who want to have a better understanding of agriculture and prepare for the exams can refer to our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4: Exercise and Solutions

On Extramarks’ website, all study solutions are prepared by a team of subject experts. Students can refer to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 anytime. They will be better able to comprehend concepts and prepare for their examinations. However, students are advised to read NCERT textbooks first and then refer to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 for clarification of answers.

Students can click on the respective links below to find answers to questions:

  • NCERT Class 8 Geography Solutions: Short Type Answers
  • NCERT Class 8 Geography Solutions: Long Type Answers

Extramarks’ also provide study materials for all subjects and all classes. Students can click on below respective links to navigate through respective resources.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4

Students can benefit in the following ways by referring to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4:

  • Subject experts prepare all the study notes at Extramarks’. The experts follow all the guidelines CBSE has stated to draft solutions. 
  • The solutions and revision notes are written in simple and easy understandable language. 
  • No extra effort is required to understand the solutions. They all are self-explanatory. 
  • Students can understand the writing style for examinations by referring to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4. 
  • After thoroughly reading a Chapter from the NCERT textbook, students can understand the concepts well and score good marks in examinations. 
  • The solutions have an easy explanation for all subjects to simplify the learning process for students. 
NCERT Solutions Class 8 (Geography – Resource and Development) Chapter-wise List
Chapter 1 – Resources
Chapter 2 – Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Resources
Chapter 3 – Mineral and Power Resources
Chapter 4 – Agriculture
Chapter 5 – Industries
Chapter 6 – Human Resources

Q.1 Answer the following questions.

(i) What is agriculture?

(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture?

(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?

(iv) What is plantation agriculture?

(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.


(i) Agriculture is a primary activity that includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. It is also called farming.

(ii) The factors influencing agriculture are availability of arable land, favourable topography of soil and climate.

(iii) Shifting agriculture or slash or burn agriculture is a type of primitive subsistence agriculture. In this type of agriculture, a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot.

Disadvantages of shifting agriculture are:
1. Deforestation
2. Soil erosion
3. It is subsistence farming, which is insufficient for feeding a large population

(iv)Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew,rubber, banana or cotton are grown. Large amount of labour and capital are required in this type of farming.


Fibre Crop Climatic conditions required
Cotton Requires high temperature (30°C-40°C), light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
Jute Requires high temperature (more than 25°C),heavy rainfall and humid climate. This crop is grown in the tropical areas.

Q.2 Tick the correct answer.

(i) Horticulture means

(a) growing of fruits and vegetables (b) primitive farming (c) growing of wheat

(ii) Golden fibre refers to
(a) tea (b) cotton (c) jute

(iii) Leading producers of coffee
(a) Brazil (b) India (c) Russia


(i) (a) growing of fruits and vegetable ✓
(ii) (c) jute ✓
(iii) (a) Brazil ✓

Q.3 Give reasons.
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.


(i) Agriculture is a primary activity in India. India is known as an agricultural country. It is because two third of population depends on agriculture; agriculture provides employment to 65% labour force.It accounts for 25% of Gross Domestic product and 16% share of total value of country’s export.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions. It is because different crops require different geographical conditions and climatic conditions. Favourable topography of soil and climates play an important role in selection of crops to be grown in that area. Growing of crops is also determined by human factors, like demand of produce, labour and level of technology.

Q.4 Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities

(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.



Primary activities Tertiary activities
Primary activities include all those connected with extraction and production of natural resources. Tertiary activities provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through services.
Example: Agriculture, fishing, gathering, etc. Example: Transport, trade, banking, insurance, etc.


Subsistence farming Intensive farming
This farming is practiced on small and scattered land holdings to meet the needs of farmer’s family. In this type of farming, small farms are cultivated intensively
Use of traditional methods of agriculture, primitive tools, low quality of fertilisers and seeds. In this type of farming, quality seeds, rich manure, fertilisers and modern irrigation methods are used.
Food production is consumed within the family. There is no surplus for market. More than one crop is cultivated. There is a high production from limited land and intensive labour.
Crops Grown in subsistence farming are sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton, jute, etc. Main crops grown are wheat and rice.

Q.5 Solve the crossword puzzle with the help of given clues.

Across Down
1. Crop that needs well drained fertile soils, moderate temperatures and

lots of sunshine (5)

2. Increasing production through use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers

and pesticides (5,10)

4. USA, Canada, Russia, Australia are major producers of this crop (5)

10. Type of farming to meet family needs (11)

13. Rearing of animals for sale (9)

14. Growing grapes for wines (11)

1. Coarse grains are also called (7)

3. Cultivation involving slash and burn (8)

5. Growing of crops, fruits and vegetables (11)

6. Tea, coffee, sugarcane and rubber are grown in (11)

7. Requires 210 frost-free days for growth (6)

8. Growing of flowers (12)

9. Also called ‘Golden Fibre’ (4)

11. Also known as paddy (4)

12. Activity concerned with extraction of natural resources (7)


Across Down
1. Maize

2. Green Revolution

4. Wheat

10. Subsistence

13. Livestock

14. Viticulture

1. Millets

3. Shifting

5. Agriculture

6. Plantations

7. Cotton

8. Horticulture

9. Jute

11. Rice

12. Primary

Please register to view this section

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How difficult is it to learn Class 8 Geography Chapter 4?

Geography Class 8 Chapter 4 is an easy shapter to study. Students can score good marks in examinations if they study adequately by referring to NCERT Solutions and revision notes. The chapter is not difficult and can be understood correctly.

2. Is there any study material for NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4?

All types of resources are available on the internet for students. However, the selection of study materials matters the most for examination preparations. Extramarks provide the most reliable study notes on the internet. Students can always refer to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 if they face difficulties while studying Geography Chapter 4 Class 8.

3. What is the weightage for Social Science in the CBSE Examination?

For the Social Science subject, the CBSE Board of Examination follows a mark-wise distribution. Further, social science is divided into 3 separate subjects. The table below summarises marks’ bifurcation according to units and subjects included in Social Science.

Unit Name  Marks in Examination
Geography – Unit 1 27
History – Unit 2 27
Political Science – Unit 3 26

To study adequately, refer to NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 by Extramarks’. On the website, Extramarks has numerous study materials for all Exam Boards and courses. These notes can be used by the students to succeed in their exams.