Do it yourself.
In Olga Tellis vs. Bombay Municipal Corporation case, the judges opined that the Right to Livelihood was part of the Right to Life. They stated that life does not merely mean an animal existence; it cannot be lived without the means of livelihood. The judges conferred that eviction from a pavement or slum is deprivation of means of livelihood for the poor who cannot afford to live anywhere else. They take up small jobs in surrounding areas and to lose their pavement or slum would lead to loss of a job resulting in loss of a means of livelihood. Consequently, this will lead to "deprivation of life". This is how the judges connected Right to Livelihood to the Right to Life.
In early 1980s, the Supreme Court devised a mechanism of Public Interest Litigation or PIL to increase access to justice. It allowed any person or organisation to file a PIL in the High Court or the Supreme Court on behalf of those whose rights were being violated.
The legal process was greatly simplified and even a letter or telegram addressed to the Supreme Court or the High Court could be treated as a PIL.
PIL can be used to secure justice on a large number of issues such as the issue of bonded labourers working in inhuman conditions.
(a) The accused took the case to the High Court because they were unhappy with the decision of the Trial Court. ✓
(b) They went to the High Court after the Supreme Court had given its decision. ✕
They went to the Supreme Court after the High Court had given its decision. ✓
(c) If they do not like the Supreme Court verdict, the accused can go back again to the Trial Court. ✕
The accused cannot go back to the Trial Court as Supreme Court is the highest court. ✓
Any Indian citizen who feels that his/her Fundamental Rights are being violated by the State can knock the door of the Court. This is the Right to Constitutional Remedies. The Judiciary is the final interpreter of the Constitution and has the power to review or strike down any law passed in the Parliament if it feels that the law violates the basic structure of the constitution. This is called Judicial Review. Thus, we see that the Right to Constitutional Remedies is connected and supported by the idea of Judicial Review.
The independence of judiciary ensures that there is no interference of the legislature and executive in functioning of judiciary. This is important for upholding the law and enforcing Fundamental Rights. If a person feels that his/her fundamental rights are being violated by the state she/he can approach the courts.
Powerful politicians and ministers cannot influence the judgment of the courts.
The duties of the government to uphold the Right to Food given in the poster are –
The photo essay depicts acute shortage of food in Rajasthan and Orissa because of drought. But on the other hand, government godowns are full of food grains which are often eaten up by rats. This speaks for the inefficiency or insincerity of the government to address the problem of hunger.
The phrase in the poster – “Hungry stomachs, overflowing godowns! We will not accept it!!” is meant to remind the government that such a situation is totally unacceptable.