NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Social and Political Life Chapter 9 : Public Facilities

Q:

Do you think the distribution of public facilities in our country is adequate and fair? Give an example of your own to explain.

A:

The distribution of public facilities is not adequate and fair. We find more public facilities in areas where people with a higher income live. Therefore, we find lesser public facilities in rural areas as compared to urban areas. Rural areas do not get adequate water supply. They also face constant power cuts. They also lack proper healthcare facilities and educational institutions.

Urban areas have more public facilities as compared to rural areas. But even in the cities, localities with people of higher income class will have more facilities. People living in and around the slums have very few or no public facilities.

Q:

Why are most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in towns or rural areas?

A:

Private hospitals and private schools serve the people but at a price. Their main aim is to earn profit. People living in urban areas may be able to afford the services offered by private hospitals and private schools but it is not very likely that people living in rural areas can afford these services. Therefore, we find most of the private hospitals and private schools located in major cities and not in small towns and rural areas.

Q:

Do you think water in Chennai is available to and affordable by all? Discuss.

A:

Water in Chennai is neither available to all nor affordable by all. Availability of a good, regular water supply is proportionate to the level of income one earns, in this city. Senior government officials in areas like Anna Nagar can get a whole water tanker arranged for themselves; most areas like Mylapore get water once in two days; in Madipakkam, people buy bottled water for drinking purposes but the situation is the worst in slums. Here, water supply runs for barely an hour everyday from a single tap serving over thirty families for all their water needs.

Q:

Why do you think there are so few cases of private water supply in the world?

A:

Water is an essential need of the people whether rich or poor. It is the duty of every government to provide such basic and essential needs to their citizens as a public facility. In cases where water supply was placed in the hands of private companies, water became very expensive, making it unaffordable to the common people. This resulted in riots, protests and violent demonstrations in countries like Bolivia. Hence, it has been deemed best that the government must handle water supply services.

Q:

Private educational institutions – schools, colleges, universities, technical and vocational training institutes are coming up in our country in a big way. On the other hand, educational institutes run by the government are becoming relatively less important. What do you think would be the impact of this? Discuss.

A:

Private educational institutes operate with the aim of making profit. They charge huge fee from the students which only the affluent class can afford. But at the same time, private institutes provide better facilities and quality education as they have to face a stiff competition among themselves.

On the other hand, government institutes work for public welfare rather than for profit. They don’t charge huge fee and are affordable to all. But they don’t offer the same facilities and quality as provided by private institutes.

The impact of this will be that students from rich families will get better education and they will excel in all competitive exams. But those from poor families won’t be able to match them and continue to lag behind. Therefore, it is the duty of the government to improve the standard government institutes so that the competition is even.

Q:

How is the sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai affecting the local people? Do you think local people can object to such exploitation of ground water? Can the government do anything in this regard?

A:

The sale of water by farmers to water dealers in Chennai is affecting the local people in various ways:

  • The water being exploited is meant for irrigation. The sale of this water to dealers is affecting agriculture.
  • This water is also being taken from the drinking water supplies of the villagers. This has resulted in acute shortage of drinking water.
  • As a result of the heavy exploitation of water, the ground water levels dropped drastically in these areas.

Yes, the local people can and should object to the indiscriminate exploitation of ground water as it is a public facility and nature’s gift over which every person has equal right. No one has the right to sell it or own it exclusively.

The Government needs to immediately stop this indiscriminate exploitation of ground water. Our Constitution recognizes many of the public facilities including access to safe drinking water, as being a part of the Right to Life. So, the Government must see that these rights are protected so that everyone can lead a decent life.

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