Critical Velocity Formula

Critical Velocity Formula

The Critical Velocity of the fluid is the velocity at which the liquid flow transitions from streamlined to turbulent. When the fluid in the pipe has a modest velocity, the streamlines are straight, parallel lines. As the fluid’s velocity rises, the streamline remains straight and parallel to the pipe wall. When the Velocity hits its limit, it begins to create patterns. The Critical Velocity will scatter the streamlines throughout the pipe.

The sewer pipes are progressively inclined to allow gravity to operate on the fluid flow, keeping the flow non-critical. Because solid particles are present in the flow, the excessive velocity of the flow can induce pipe erosion, resulting in pipe damage. Pipe damaged by the action of high-velocity fluid can be repaired by utilising trenchless methods such as cured-in-place pipe, pipe bursting, and slip lining.

The Critical Velocity Formula of a fluid may be estimated using the Reynolds number, which defines streamlined or turbulent airflow. It’s a dimensionless variable that can be determined with a formula.

Critical Velocity Types

Lower Critical Velocity:

The rate at which laminar flow ceases or switches to the transition phase. There is a temporal difference between laminar and turbulent flow. Experiments have shown that when a laminar flow transitions to turbulence, the transition is gradual. There is, however, a transition period between the two types of fluxes. In 1883, Prof. Reynolds Osborne pioneered this experiment.

Upper Critical Velocity:

The Critical Velocity at which a flow switches from a transition phase to a turbulent flow is referred to as the “greater or higher Critical velocity.”

The Critical Velocity Formula is the speed and direction at which a liquid’s flow in a tube transitions from smooth to turbulent. The critical velocity is determined by a variety of variables, but the Reynolds number characterises the flow of liquid through a tube as turbulent or laminar. The Reynolds number is a dimensionless variable, meaning it has no units associated with it. The Critical Velocity Formula will be discussed in the Critical Velocity Formula.

How to Calculate Critical Velocity?

The speed at which gravity and air resistance on a falling object are equalised is known as the Critical Velocity Formula of the object. The alternate method of elucidating Critical Velocity is to determine the speed and direction at which a fluid will flow through a conduit without becoming turbulent. Turbulent flow is described as an unpredictable fluid flow that changes amplitude and direction continually.

The quantity of gas necessary to maintain fluids entrained in the gas stream and raised to the surface is described as “critical velocity.” The higher the line pressure, the higher the needed flow rate. The bigger the pipe or tube, the greater the needed flow rate. Reynolds demonstrated experimentally that if the average velocity of the flow of a certain liquid is less than a specific value, the motion is streamlined, and if it is more than this value, the flow becomes turbulent.

The critical velocity of a liquid flowing through a tube is calculated using the Critical Velocity Formula

The Critical Velocity Formula (Vc) = K η / ρ r


The critical velocity is the Vc

Reynold’s number is the K

The coefficient of the viscosity of the liquid is η

The radius of the tube through which the liquid flows is r

The density of the liquid is ρ

Sample Problems

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Average Velocity Formula Conservation Of Energy Formula
Impulse Formula Diffraction Grating Formula
Resistance Formula Fluid Mechanics Formula
Surface Tension Formula Froude Number Formula
Angular Velocity Formula Magnetism Formula