Salts, bases, and acids all play a role in chemistry and our everyday lives. Acids have a sour taste, bases are bitter, and salts themselves have a salty flavour. Fruits like oranges and lemons contain citric acid, tamarind contains tartaric acid, apples contain malic acid, milk and milk products contain lactic acid, and gastric fluids contain hydrochloric acid. There are numerous bases available, such as lime water. In our daily lives, we use many of these acids. Vinegar or acetic acid in the kitchen for cooking purposes. Boric acid is used in laundry since it is an excellent cleansing agent, baking soda in cooking, washing soda in cleaning, and so forth. In laboratories and industries, many acids and bases that we do not use on a daily basis are used, including HCl, H2SO4, and NaOH and KOH, among others. When these acids and bases are combined in the right proportions, the neutralisation process produces salt and water. For instance, the naturally occurring salts NaCl and KCl are present in seawater and natural rock deposits. pH Formula helps in identifying the pH value of a solution.
What is pH Formula?
pH Formula is used to give the pH of a solution. Soren Peter, a biochemist, coined the term pH for the first time in 1909. We use a universal indicator that changes colour depending on the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution to assess the potency of acids and bases. The strength of acid and base is typically measured quantitatively using the pH value. A substance’s pH level indicates how basic or acidic it is. pH ranges from 0 to 14. The substance is considered basic if its pH is higher than 7. The term “acidic” refers to a substance with a pH below 7. The substance is considered neutral when the pH value is exactly 7. Anything that is capable of releasing a proton qualifies as acidic. A proton will accept a basic substance.
Strong Acids and Strong Bases
In a solution, a strong acid (HA) completely dissociates. It can also be said that in an aqueous solution, it ionises completely. Strong acids can also stay in an aqueous solution and are useful proton donors. A molecule that has a hydrogen atom attached to an electronegative atom, like oxygen or a halogen, is referred to as a strong proton donor. Any strong acid will lose a proton in water and transfer it to H2O molecules to create H3O, a hydronium ion.
pH Value Equation
The equation to calculate the pH of an aqueous solution in terms of hydronium ion concentration is:
pOH: The following equation can be used to calculate an aqueous solution’s pOH, which is correlated with pH:
Instead of the hydronium concentration, this equation uses the concentration of hydroxide in an aqueous solution.
Applications of pH scale in real life
Only a small range of pH changes allows for the survival of plants and animals. The pH range in which human and animal bodies typically function is 7 to 7.5.
Acid rain is defined as rain that has a pH of less than 5.6. The pH level of the water drops when this acid rain flows through water bodies like rivers or lakes, harming aquatic life.
Furthermore, we experience acidity issues when the pH of our stomachs decreases.
Our teeth begin to deteriorate when the pH level in our mouths decreases.
The pH of the soil can change, rendering it infertile.
It is necessary to solve examples based on pH Formula. Solving questions from time to time will help students in retaining the pH Formula for a longer period of time. Extramarks can help students in solving questions related to the pH Formula.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What is the pH Formula?
The pH Formula is given as pH = – log [H3O+]. The pH Formula helps in determining the strength of an acid or a base. Practising questions based on the pH Formula will assist students in scoring well in their examination.
2. What are the strong acids and strong bases?
The acids and bases that dissociate completely in an aqueous solution are termed as strong bases and strong acids. The pH Formula can also be used to know if a base or acid is strong or not. Strong acids have a pH belonging to 0-1 and strong bases have a pH of 12-14.