Potassium Permanganate Formula
Potassium Permanganate Formula
In the periodic table, potassium (K) has the atomic number 19 and is a chemical element. Potassium is a silvery-white metal that can be sliced with a knife with only minimal effort. The result of this reaction with oxygen is flaky, white potassium peroxide. The chemical compound permanganate contains the manganate(VII) ion, MnO⁻₄, which is the conjugate base of permanganic acid. The permanganate(VII) ion is a potent oxidising agent because the manganese atom is in the +7 oxidation state.
When a German-Dutch chemist named Johann Rudolf Glauber began his investigations by combining two substances, notably pyrolusite, a mineral composed of manganese dioxide and potassium carbonate, he discovered the first indications of KMnO4. He let the mixture dissolve in water, which produced a green solution. It was manganate of potash. It’s interesting to note that the solution’s colour gradually transitioned from blue to violet to red. The first KMnO4 was created in this experiment.
Henry Bollmann Condy, a chemist from London, produced a more significant discovery. In his example, he combined sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with pyrolusite before dissolving it in water. As a result, a solution was created that had numerous properties, the main one of which was disinfectant. The remedy was commercially adopted and patented. It was referred to as “Condy’s Fluid.” The solution was discovered to be unstable, hence there was one downside. Potassium hydroxide (KOH), rather than sodium hydroxide (NaOH), was used to fix this flaw. Additionally, crystals of the Potassium Permanganate Formula could now be extracted from the solution. These crystals thereafter became referred to as “Condy’s powder” or “Condy’s crystals.”
Structure of Potassium Permanganate
The potassium cation and permanganate anion are bonded via an ionic connection.
The structure of the Potassium Permanganate Formula is given below. Students must look into the structure and learn about it accordingly. Every compound has a different structure, students must understand the elements and reactions that may lead to the creation of new compounds.
Preparation of Potassium Permanganate
A solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and manganese oxide powder is combined with oxidising substances like potassium chlorate to create Potassium Permanganate Formula. This combination is boiled, the liquid is evaporated, and the leftover mixture is cooked in iron pans until it becomes pasty. Students must see the formulas given below to understand the process of creation of the Potassium Permanganate Formula. Therefore, precision and accuracy are required to understand the whole process.
6KOH + 3MnO2 + 6KClO3 → 3K2MnO4 + 6KCl + 3H2O
The resulting potassium manganate (K2MnO4) is then heated with water, added chlorine, and passed through ozonized air till permanganate is created.
6K2MnO4 + 3Cl2 → 6KMnO4 + 6KCl.
Physical Properties Of Potassium Permanganate
Students must know the physical and chemical properties of the Potassium Permanganate Formula. Here are some of the mentioned Physical Properties of the Potassium Permanganate Formula.
- Potassium permanganate has a molecular weight of 158.034 g/mol.
- Potassium permanganate has a density of 2.703 g/cm3.
- Potassium permanganate has a boiling point of 100 °C.
- It has a melting point of 240 °C.
- The potassium permanganate oxidation state is +7.
- It is a colourless, crystalline purple substance.
- Water dissolves it, and heating water makes it more soluble. It can dissolve in organic chemicals such as acetone, acetic acid, methanol, pyridine, and ethanol.
- This substance has a little acidic or bitter flavour.
Chemical Properties Of Potassium Permanganate
Thermal decomposition: When heated, the Potassium Permanganate Formula experiences thermal decomposition.
2KMnO4 → K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2.
Permanganate of potassium when concentrated hydrochloric acid and permanganate combined, chlorine is the product. Green K2MnO4 is produced when Potassium Permanganate Formula reduces to an alkaline solution using the equation 2KMnO4 + 16HCl 2KCl + 2MnCl2 5H2O + 8Cl2.
Alkalies’ effects: When Potassium Permanganate Formula is heated in the presence of alkalies, it transforms into manganate and releases oxygen gas.
2KMnO4 + 16HCl → 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + 5H2O + 8Cl2.
Oxidising abilities: In acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions, KMnO4 works as a very potent oxidising agent. The oxidation equations are as follows.
Uses Of Potassium Permanganate
The majority of potassium permanganate’s applications revolve around its oxidising ability. It is also commonly used because no harmful by-products are produced.
- As an antiseptic, KMnO4 is frequently used to treat various fungal infections, ulcers, wounds, and other skin disorders.
- It is mostly used in water treatment to eliminate minerals like iron and hydrogen sulphide as well as to manage organisms like zebra mussels.
- The rust that may be present in water pipes and other equipment is also removed using this chemical compound.
- The production of organic molecules is another significant application for potassium permanganate.
- It assists in fruit preservation.
- It can be discovered in survival kits. It is simple to use to ignite a fire.
There are a few adverse effects of the Potassium Permanganate Formula as well. Students will comprehend some of KMnO4’s negative impacts. The concentrated potassium permanganate solution is typically corrosive in nature. It can harm the membranes in the eyes, mouth, nose, and other bodily organs in addition to causing skin irritation and burns. The skin and nails also get a coloured tint as a result. Abdominal discomfort, vomiting, throat burns, shortness of breath, circulatory collapse, kidney damage, and finally death can result from ingesting Potassium Permanganate Formula. Students know the pros and cons of every element and compound.
There are some questions presented to students to make them understand the formulation of compounds and elements:
- Why is Potassium Permanganate Formula regarded as an effective oxidiser?
The Potassium Permanganate Formula is known as an oxidising agent because as atoms’ oxidation states rise, so do the elements’ electronegative properties. Numerous significant chemicals can be chemically synthesised using it as an oxidising agent.
- What colour does the Potassium Permanganate Formula have?
In its natural condition, Potassium Permanganate Formula is an odourless solid that resembles dark purple crystals. It turns the water it dissolves in purple when it does so.
- What makes KMnO4 a self-indicator?
As they are consumed in the reaction, permanganate ions lose their pink colour. Since Potassium Permanganate Formula serves as an indication in addition to being one of the reactants, it is known as a self-indicator since it suggests the end of the reaction.
- What occurs when CO2 and potassium permanganate interact?
When CO2 gas is blown through a solution of potassium manganate, the solution turns purple.
As shown below, CO2 and water react to generate carbonic acid:
CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3.
- What are the drawbacks of the Potassium Permanganate Formula?
Human eyes and skin may become irritated by it. It leaves a stain on the skin or tissues after use. Potassium Permanganate Formula should be handled carefully, since it can explode if it comes into contact with things that are easily oxidised.
Some reactions of KMnO4
- Many organic molecules can be oxidised using KMnO4. Additionally, it can be utilised to oxidise primarily weakly bound carbon atoms. Alcohols, alkenes, aldehydes, alkynes, and aromatic side chains can all react with it.
- Typically, aldehydes are oxidised to carboxylic acids.
- Carbonyls form when alcohols are oxidised.
- Alkenes can be converted to glycols using potassium permanganate as a catalyst.
- A diones formation occurs in alkynes.