NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Geography Social Science Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries


Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers.
  1. Textiles, sugar, vegetable oil and plantation industries deriving raw materials from agriculture are called…
  2. The basic raw material for sugar industry.
  3. This fibre is also known as the ‘Golden Fibre’.
  4. Iron-ore, coking coal, and limestone are the chief raw materials of this industry.
  5. A public sector steel plant located in Chhattisgarh.
  6. Railway diesel engines are manufactured in Uttar Pradesh at this place.


  1. Agrobased
  2. Sugarcane
  3. Jute
  4. Ironsteel
  5. Bhilai
  6. Varanshi


Give one word for each of the following with regard to industry. The number of letters in each word are hinted in brackets. (i) Used to drive machinery (5) P...........................
(ii) People who work in a factory (6) W..........................
(iii) Where the product is sold (6) M..........................
(iv) A person who sells goods (8) R...........................
(v) Thing produced (7) P............................
(vi) To make or produce (11) M..........................
(vii) Land, Water and Air degraded (9) P............................


 (i) Power

(ii) Worker

(iii) Market

(iv) Retailer

(v) Product

(vi) Manufacture

(vii) Pollution


Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words. (i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity? (ii) How do industries pollute the environment? (iii) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?


(i) Integrated Steel Plants are large plants, which handle everything in one complex – from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling, and shaping.

Mini Steel Plants are smaller, have electric arc furnaces, use mainly steel scrap and sponge iron as inputs. They have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.

Problems of Steel Industry:

  • High costs and limited availability of coking coal
  • Irregular supply of energy
  • Lower productivity of labour
  • Poor infrastructures like roads, transport and communication

Following are some recent developments that have led to a rise in the production capacity:

  • Liberalisation
  • Foreign direct investments (FDI) with the efforts of private entrepreneurs
  • Improvement in production process by the use of newer technologies
  • Allocation of fund and other resources for research and development
(ii) Industries are responsible for four types of pollution – air, water, land, and noise pollution. Following are the various reasons:

  • Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide and adversely affects human health, animals, plants, buildings, and the atmosphere as a whole.
  • Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants are drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers.
  • Dumping of wastes like glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts, and other garbage render the soil useless.
  • Noise pollution is caused due to industrial and construction activities, factory equipment, generators, electric saws, drills, etc.
  • (iii) The steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industry are:

  • To control water pollution, industrial effluents need to be treated on primary, secondary, and tertiary levels.
  • The use of water for processing should be minimised via reuse and recycling; rainwater can be harvested to meet water requirements.
  • For the minimisation of air pollution, smoke stacks should be fitted in factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
  • To control noise pollution, generators should be fitted with silencers and using earplugs and earphones besides other noise absorbing material.
  • Q:

    Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words. (i) What is manufacturing?
    (ii) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.
    (iii) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.
    (iv) What are basic industries? Give an example.
    (v) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?


    (i) Manufacturing is the process in which goods are produced after processing the various raw materials.

    (ii) Three physical factors for the location of the industry are:

  • Availability of raw material
  • Availability of water and power supply
  • Suitable climate
  • (iii) Three human factors for the location of an industry are

  • Availability of cheap and skilled labour
  • Availability of Market
  • Consultants and financial advice
  • (iv) Basic or key industries are those which supply their raw materials to industries that manufacture other goods. An example is the iron and steel industry that supplies steel to the automobile industry.

    (v) The important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement are limestone, silica, alumina, and gypsum.


    Multiple choice questions. (i) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material.
    (a) Aluminium (b) Cement (c) Plastic (d) Automobile (ii) Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?
    (a) HAIL (b) SAIL (c) TATA Steel (d) MNCC (iii) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
    (a) Aluminium Smelting (b) Cement (c) Paper (d) Steel (iv) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc.
    (a) Steel (c) Aluminium Smelting
    (b) Electronic (d) Information Technology


    (i) (b) Cement   ✓

    (ii) (b) SAIL   ✓

    (iii) (a) Aluminium Smelting   ✓

    (iv) (b) Electronic   ✓

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