Aluminium Chloride Formula

Aluminium Chloride Formula

Aluminium chloride is also known as aluminium trichloride or aluminium(III) chloride. The chemical is generated when aluminium and chlorine combine. The chemical formula is given as AlCl3. Aluminium chloride’s physical appearance is typically white. However, owing to the presence of impurities (iron(III) chloride), it becomes yellowish.

Aluminium chloride is used industrially to produce aluminium metal, but it also has a broad range of applications in the chemical industry, notably as a Lewis acid. Solid aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is covalently bound and has low melting and boiling temperatures.

What is Aluminium Chloride?

Other names for Aluminium Chloride Formula include aluminium trichloride and aluminium (III) chloride. Aluminium and chlorine react with one another to create the chemical Aluminium Chloride Formula. AlCl3 is the chemical formula for it. For the most part, aluminium chloride is white in colour. It turns orange, nevertheless, as a result of the impurities (iron(III) chloride).

Aluminium Chloride Formula is used to make aluminium metal in industrial settings, but it also has many other applications in the chemical industry, particularly as a Lewis acid. Covalently bound solid aluminium chloride (AlCl3) has a low melting and boiling point.

Aluminium chloride was found for the first time in 1825 by Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish scientist and chemist. This chemical molecule is one of the earliest known, particularly in the field of organic chemistry. Below, we shall discover more about this compound.

Aluminium Chloride Formula Structure

Aluminium Chloride Formula has a 2D structure. The 3D conformer structure was discontinued since MMFF94s unsupported elements.

When subjected to a range of temperatures, the Aluminium Chloride Formula has a tendency to create many kinds of shapes. Additionally, whether the Aluminium Chloride Formula is in a solid, liquid, or gaseous state depends on that condition. AlCl3 has a cubic, close-packed layered structure when it is solid. Its coordination geometry in this instance will be octahedral. Aluminium chloride exists as a dimer when it is liquid or molten. The geometry of its coordination will be tetrahedral. The dimers separate into trigonal planar at higher temperatures.

Aluminium Chloride Formula Overview

The table below summarizes the properties of Aluminium Chloride Formula-

IUPAC Name Aluminium Chloride
Other Names Aluminium(III) Chloride

Aluminum Trichloride

Chemical Formula AlCl3
Molar Mass
  • 133.341 g/mol (anhydrous)
  • 241.432 g/mol (hexahydrate)
  • 2.48 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
  • 2.398 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
Melting Point
  • 192.6°C (anhydrous)
  • 100°C (hexahydrate, dec.)
Boiling Point 180°C
Solubility in Water 439 g/l (0 °C)

449 g/l (10 °C)

458 g/l (20 °C)

466 g/l (30 °C)

473 g/l (40 °C)

481 g/l (60 °C)

486 g/l (80 °C)

490 g/l (100 °C)

Vapour Pressure 133.3 Pa (99 °C)

13.3 kPa (151 °C)

Viscosity 0.35 cP (197 °C)

0.26 cP (237 °C)

Aluminium Chloride Preparation

Aluminium chloride is primarily formed by an exothermic reaction between two elements, aluminium and chlorine. There are various alternative ways to obtain aluminium chloride.

Some popular methods include reacting the aluminium metal with hydrogen chloride or performing a single displacement reaction between copper chloride and aluminium metal. The reactions to this are as follows:

  • 2Al + 3Cl2 → 2AlCl3
  • 2Al + 6HCl → 2AlCl3 +  H2
  • 2Al + 3CuCl2 → 2AlCl3 + 3Cu

Aluminium Chloride Formula Properties

The physical and chemical properties of aluminium chloride will be discussed in the following sections.

Physical properties of AlCl3

  • Aluminium chloride has extremely low melting and boiling points.
  • It sublimes at 180°C.
  • In its molten state, AlCl3 is a poor conductor of electricity.
  • Aluminium chloride is white, but it is frequently polluted with iron trichloride, turning it yellow.
  • It is only liquid under pressures more than 2.5 atm and temperatures higher than 190°C.

Chemical properties of AlCl3

  • Aluminium chloride is a potent Lewis acid.
  • It is an important industrial catalyst.
  • AlCl3 is a caustic, anhydrous solid that is not explosive or flammable.
  • It reacts strongly when it comes into touch with water or bases

Aluminium Chloride Uses

  • Aluminium chloride is commonly used in the manufacture of rubber, lubricants, wood preservatives, and paint.
  • It is utilised in insecticides and medicines.
  • It’s utilised as a flux in aluminium melting.
  • It’s used as an antiperspirant.
  • It is also used to manufacture petrochemicals like ethylbenzene and alkylbenzene.

Aluminium and chlorine exothermically react to produce aluminium chloride, which is the main product. Aluminium chloride can also be obtained in a number of other ways. Aluminium Chloride reacts violently with water and bases. In the presence of magnesium and calcium hydrides, aluminium chloride can create tetrahydridoaluminate.

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