ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus

ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus 2023-24

ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus helps students gather information and understand facts, problems, terms, symbols, concepts, principles, generalisations, hypotheses, trends, processes, and methods of Geography at the national and international levels. It helps understand the causes and consequences of natural hazards. It suggests ways of coping with them through feasible development, gathering required skills and drawing maps and surveys.   

ISC  Class 12 Geography Syllabus:  Semester 1 & 2 

Geography is a field of science that concentrates on the formation of the Earth, the land, the features, the temperature, etc. It teaches the relationship between people and their habitat and helps connect them with surrounding space and Earth. Geography connects and covers various sub-dISCiplines such as Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Biology, Ecology, Anthropology, Economics, Politics and various other topics. Geography includes the study of River environment, Pollution Management, Environmental Health, Waste Management and Occupational health.

ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus for both semesters is represented in the table below:

Semester 1 

(Marks: 35)

Semester 2 

(Marks: 35)

Unit No. Name of the Unit Unit No. Name of the Unit
1. Physical Environment (Complete Unit) 3. Resources of India and their Utilisation
2. Population and Human settlements (Complete Unit) 4. Infrastructural Resources (Development of Transport and Communication) (Complete Unit)
3. Resources of India and their Utilisation 5. Industries (Complete Unit)
7. Map Work 6. Regional Economic Development (Complete Unit)
7. Map Work

A brief explanation of the ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus:

  1. Physical Environment:
  • Locational setting in India
  • Structure of India
  • Climate in India
  • Natural vegetation in India
  1. Population and Human settlements:
  • India’s population compared to six countries – China, Australia, the USA, Canada, Russia, and Brazil. 
  • National and State level patterns of Indian population distribution
  • Population pattern and growth in the last three decades; implications for development. 
  • Migration in trends over the last 25 years.
  • Demographic attributes at the Domestic level – Trends and Patterns of:
  • Rural-urban population 
  • Age and sex composition
  • Literacy levels Working and non-working population; implications for its progress. 
  1. Resources of India and their Utilisation:
  • Need for environmental management and development. 
  • Land resources
  • Water resources and types of irrigation. 
  • Agriculture: Types, development and various setbacks.
  • Fishing in India, Japan and Bangladesh.
  • Sources of Energy 
  1. Infrastructural Resources.
  • Roadways, Railways, Water transport (inland and coastal), Air transport, Pipelines, natural and economic factors that govern their distribution; density and growth patterns in India.
  • Communication
  1. Industries:
  • Study of the location and distribution of important industrial centres; a general comparison of disparities
  • Major and minor industrial regions – Factors that govern their growth. 
  • Location, production and growth of the following industries:
  • Agro-based industries
  • Mineral-based industries:
  • Tourism industry: 
  1. Regional Economic Development:

Case studies on the understanding and the meaning of development, multi-level planning and planning regions. It covers planning and administering strategic efforts to develop the regional economy by considering the necessary elements, such as the geographical location, resource base, developmental history, present trends of population, occupations, agriculture and industrial activities, and issues during the development. 

  1. Map Work:

Students need to locate and label any of the following items studied during their academic year. The questions will be set on a map to identify the given locations.

By sketching maps, students will be able to label, draw, interpret and understand the maps concerning the topics, such as the locational setting of India, climate, relief and drainage of India, Population, Industries, etc. 

ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus: Examination Pattern

The Syllabus is divided into two papers: 

  • Paper-I: Theory (3 hours) – 70 marks 
  • Paper-II: Practical & Project Work – 30 marks

Examination Pattern: Paper 1 – Theory:

Geography paper 1 should be completed in 3 hours, and it weighs 70 marks, which is further divided into two parts.

  • Part-I weighs 30 marks and will consist of two sections, i.e. Section A and Section B. 
  • Section A – includes mandatory short answer questions that test the knowledge, application and skills related to all the aspects of the Syllabus. 
  • Section B – includes one question on map work. 
  • Part-II weighs 40 marks and consists of seven questions. Students are allowed to answer four out of seven questions. Each question in this part shall carry 10 marks.

Examination Pattern: Paper 2 – Practicals:

Paper 2 Practical work and project work carry 30 marks.

Key Features of ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus

To ensure good marks in the Examination, the students must plan a solid timetable. Following are the advantages of studying ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus:

  • The Syllabus covers all the chapters.
  • Chapters are bifurcated into two semesters.
  • All the subtopics from all the chapters are explained in detail.

ISC Geography Class 12 Syllabus

  • Class 12 Geography

Theory paper is of three hours duration and 70 marks. There are 7 units in the syllabus: (i) Physical Environment (ii) Population and Human settlements (iii) Resources of India and their Utilisation (iv) Infrastructural Resources (v) Industries (vi) Regional Economic Development (vii) Map Work.

1. Physical Environment

(i) Locational setting – India: size and area. Present importance of the location of India with reference to the Indian Ocean Rim countries and the Northern and Western frontiers.

(ii) Structure of India – Geological formation, relief and drainage; major physiographic divisions and their characteristics.

(a) Outline of the geological evolution and structure.

(b) The three-fold physiographic divisions: the Himalayan mountain complex, the Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plains and the Peninsular Plateau.

(c) Drainage (i.e. rivers) and drainage systems: Names and sources of the main rivers and their major tributaries. Comparison of Himalayan and Peninsular rivers.

(iii) Climate: India – Factors affecting India’s climate: Temperature – factors affecting temperature. Atmospheric pressure conditions during the year; origin and mechanism of the monsoon, Jet streams, Southern Oscillations; wind and rainfall distribution during the year;

Characteristics of the four main seasons – hot and dry, hot and wet, cool and dry, cool and wet with reference to temperature distribution in north and south India, pressure, wind conditions – distribution of resultant rainfall; variability of rainfall, incidence of droughts and floods. Temperature and rainfall graphs of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Jaisalmer, Leh, and Hyderabad.

(iv) Natural vegetation: Forest – area covered, importance, use, misuse and potential both for exploitation and conservation. Present forest policy.

2. Population and Human settlements

(i) Population of India compared to six countries – China, Australia, USA, Canada, Russia and Brazil.

(ii) National and State level patterns of population distribution.

(iii) Pattern of population growth in the last three decades; implications for development.

(iv) Migration trends over the last 25 years.

(v) Demographic attributes at National level – trends and patterns of: 1. Rural urban population 2. Age and sex composition 3. Literacy levels 4. Working and non-working population; implications for development.

(vi) Rural settlements – size and number of villages as per the latest census. Types and patterns in hill areas, plains and coastal locations.

(vii) Urban settlements – size classification of towns as per the latest census. Study of population growth in India.

3. Resources of India and their Utilisation

(i) Need for environmental management vis-à- vis development.

Understanding that from the development point of view, environment may mistakenly be seen as a ‘resource’ to be exploited, whereas, environment needs to be viewed as a ‘capital’ that needs to be managed carefully.

(ii) Land resources: Land use pattern in India – quality of cultivable land, size of land holdings.

(iii) Water resources and types of irrigation.

(iv) Agriculture: Types, development and problems.

(a) Wet and dry farming, crop rotation and crop combination, intensity of cropping, problems of Indian agriculture; use of technology in agriculture. Modern inputs, change over from subsistence to commercial agriculture, need for Green Revolution. Diversifying Indian agriculture – importance of animal husbandry.

(b) Study of crops: (i) Conditions of growth (soil, temperature, rainfall requirements, crop seasons). (ii) World production and India’s position. (iii) Major producing States in India and their rank as producers of the following crops:

Food grains – Rice, Wheat, Coarse grains – Sorghum (Jowar, Maize), Pennisetum (Bajra or Camboo), Eleusine (Ragi), Pulses.

Commercial and Industrial crops – Coffee (Nilgiris), Tea, Cotton, Sugarcane, Jute, Groundnut.

(v) Fishing in India and Japan.

Factors influencing development of fishing in India and Japan.

(vi) Sources of Energy

(a) Minerals and power resources.

(b) Conventional energy sources – fossil fuels and firewood, potential (Indian context) and limitations of each source, methods of harnessing and environmental consequences of their use.

(c) Non-conventional energy sources – types of non-conventional sources (bio-mass, solar, wind, ocean, hydel, geothermal), their environmental consequences, need to promote non-conventional energy sources.

4. Infrastructural Resources

(Development of Transport and Communication)

(a) Railways, Roadways, Water transport (inland and coastal), Air transport, Pipelines – these modes of transport are to be studied with regard to:

Factors: natural and economic that govern the distribution of railways, roadways, water and air transport; density and growth. Patterns in India.

Ports, their location and advantage; major exports and imports of different ports. Nature and direction of trade from the ports. International trading patterns and products in the last five years.

(b) Communication – importance of communication in rural development and its policy. Importance of infrastructure as key to the development of an industrial economy.

5. Industries

(a) Study of the location and distribution of important industrial centres; a general comparison of disparities.

(b) Major and minor industrial regions – factors governing their growth.

(c) Location, production and growth of the following industries:

(i) Agro based industries – cotton textile

(ii) Mineral based industries – Iron and steel and Petrochemicals.

(d) Tourism industry – Major natural and cultural tourist areas in India. Their special features and level of development – impact on environment and local economy. Tourist flows.

6. Regional Economic Development

(Case studies)

Understanding of the meaning of development, multilevel planning and planning regions. The case studies will be undertaken with reference to the advantages and disadvantages that have accrued to the people and area – aspects covered will be their geographical location, resource base, developmental history, agriculture and industrial activities, issues of development.

  1. Area development in Chhattisgarh region – mining, silk industry and farming.
  2. Electronics industry in Bengaluru – reasons for its development, extent, national and international linkages and problems.
  3. Growth of Haldia port, its industries and hinterland.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How can I score good marks in the ISC Class 12 Geography?

The following steps can help secure good marks in the ISC Class 12 Geography subject:

  • To ensure good marks in the examination, candidates need to first get access to the latest syllabus
  • Now, analyse the syllabus carefully and discover your strengths and weaknesses in Geography.
  • Prepare a timetable by assuming a tentative date of the Examination.
  • Adhere to the timetable you have made while studying Geography, and note down important points.
  • Complete the whole Syllabus at least a month before the examination date.
  • Lastly, revise your notes and practice solving the questions.

2. Is it necessary to study all the ISC Class 12 Geography subject chapters?

Skipping any chapters from the ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus is not an option. It’s essential to study all the chapters. During the Examination, questions are asked related to all the chapters. Hence, students are advised to study l the syllabus and not skip any chapter. 

3. Total how many chapters are there in the ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus?

There are seven chapters in the ISC Class 12 Geography Syllabus. They are further divided into two semesters.

  • Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are covered in the first semester.
  • Chapters 4, 5, and 6 are covered in the second semester. 
  • Chapter 7 is the map for both semesters related to the topics covered in that particular semester.