ISC Class 12 Sociology Syllabus

ISC Class 12 Sociology Syllabus

Sociology is a vital branch of social science that aims to answer questions about our society. It examines the definition of sociology and the difference between social psychology and anthropology. It is a systematic study of human society, interpersonal connections on a group level and culture. Sociology educates the candidate on how individuals in a marriage feel about their partner. It investigates collective patterns, such as why certain cultures believe males should have several wives while others do not.  

In short, sociology investigates the ‘big picture’ on a collective level, whereas social psychology studies the attitudes and feelings of individual people. Students who want to study this subject must be aware of the ISC Class 12 Sociology Syllabus before the start of the academic year. To help out the students, Extramarks offers the updated ISC Class 12 Sociology Syllabus for free for all students.

ISC Class 12 Sociology Syllabus 2023-24- Semester (1 & 2)

The sociology syllabus has been divided into two semesters, as represented in the table below:


Semester 1



Semester 2


Unit No. Name of the Unit Unit


Name of the Unit
1. The Social Institutions 5. The Tribal India- Past, Present and Future
2. The Religion and Society 6. The Social Stratification
3. The Political Organisation 7. The Social Change and Development
4. The Economic Organisation

Students may click on the chapters mentioned in the ISC Class 12 Sociology Syllabus to access the study material pertaining to the respective chapter.

A brief of the ISC class 12 Sociology Syllabus is as under.

  1. Social Institutions:
  • Definition and features of social institutions.
  • Types of social institutions: Marriage and Family
  • Kinship: Types of kinship and classificatory kinship.
  • Marriage: Meaning and its functions.
    • Rules of marriage: endogamy and exogamy.
    • Forms of marriage: monogamy and polygamy.
  • Family: Functions of family explaining the reasons for its universal existence.
  • Different Types of the family
    • Matriarchal and patriarchal families
    • Joint and nuclear families.
  • Structural changes (dissolution of the joint family), functional changes; 
  • Factors responsible for the changes: Nuclear family norms.
  1. Religion & Society:
  • Definition/concepts of religion and science
    • Beliefs, rituals, superstitions, taboos. 
  • Theories of religion
    • Animism
    • Totemism
    • Naturism
    • Functional approaches.
  • Religion’s functions and dysfunctions: positive and negative functions to be explained here.
  • Secularism in a plural society, communalism and fundamentalism: providing relevant examples of how the States cope with the above crises to maintain Unity in Diversity.
  • Morality and social control
    • Relation between religion
    • Morality and social control
    • Moral code
    • Religious code.
  1. Political Organization & its role in bringing about change in society:
  • Definition of Panchayati Raj (Village Panchayat)
  • Definition of a political organisation
    • Zila Parishad and Block Samiti  – the 73rd constitution (three-tier)
    • Amendment Act
    • Bal Panchayats
  • Discussing the role of the Panchayat in the empowerment of women and children.
  1. The Economic Organisation:
  • Economic Organization
  • Economies of Indian tribes: 
    • Food gathering; 
    • Agriculture: shifting of axe cultivation; 
    • Handicraft making;
    • Pastoralism; 
    • Industrial labour.
  • Jajmani system, The Agrarian Economy and the Rural Employment. 
    • Exchange of services and caste-based occupations. 
    • Land relations – owner, tenant, a sharecropper. 
  • A brief understanding of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) and its involvement. 
  • Weekly markets and barter exchange.
  1. Tribal India: Past, Present & Future:
  • Definition of tribe, features and classification.
  • Dormitories in Tribal India
  • Connection of tribes with broader society (assimilation, acculturation and isolation; tribal evolution).
  • Current problems, conditions and solutions.
  • Economic, political (regionalism and separatism), social and cultural conditions and problems.
  1. The Social stratification
  • The elements, inequality, features, and differences.
  • The class system:  its nature, development, types (lower, middle, upper-class group).
  • The caste system: concept, caste origin, caste and class comparison, its features; caste in modern  India.
  • Race and Ethnicity
  • Gender roles: patriarchal ideology and the status of women in independent India. We will briefly discuss the latest amendments and bills: 
    • The Anti-Dowry Act
    • The Anti-Rape Bill
    • The Inheritance Bill
    • The Domestic Violence Act.
  1. Social Change and Development:
  • The aspects of development: Industrialisation, urbanisation, modernisation, globalisation and sustainable development.
  • Social Movements: its meaning, causes, and role in society.
  • The Role of Education in Creating Social change: Right to Education (RTE) and its implications to be discussed briefly.

Students may refer to the latest ISC Class 12 Sociology syllabus on Extramarks to prepare for the examination. 

ISC Class 12 Sociology Syllabus Examination Pattern And Marking

As per the revised CISCE board guidelines, the ISC Sociology Semester 1 exam will last 1 hour and 30 minutes. The paper will be entirely based on objective type questions with multiple-choice options. This will have 70 questions with a maximum scoring of 70 marks. For each correct answer, the candidate will receive one mark. There will be no negative marking for incorrect or unanswered questions. 

Candidates can refer to the study material with reference to ISC Class 12 Sociology syllabus prepared as per ISC guidelines from Extramarks. 

In addition to the notes, candidates can access the following by clicking on the respective links.  

ISC & ICSE Syllabus

ICSE Solutions

ICSE sample question papers

ICSE important questions

ICSE question paper

ISC Political Science Class 12 Syllabus

Theory paper is of 3 hours and 80 marks. The syllabus is divided into two sections: (A) Constitution and Government (B) Indian Democracy.

Section A: Constitution and Government

1. Forms of Government

Totalitarian and Authoritarian States, Liberal Democratic State, Unitary and Federal States, Parliamentary and Presidential forms of government.

Meaning and features of Totalitarian State, Authoritarian State and Liberal Democratic State.

Comparison between Totalitarian and Authoritarian States.

Meaning and features of Unitary and Federal States with reference to U.K. as a Unitary state, U.S.A. as a Federal State and India as a federal state with subsidiary unitary features, comparison between unitary and federal state.

Meaning and features of Parliamentary and Presidential forms of government (U.K. and U.S.A.). Comparison between Parliamentary and Presidential forms of government.

2. Constitution

Meaning; kinds of Constitutions: Written and Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible, Enacted and Evolved: merits and demerits. Amending procedures; Conventions.

Meaning; kinds: Written and Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible, Enacted and Evolved: merits, demerits of each.

Amending procedures of the Constitutions of U.K., U.S.A and India.

Conventions: meaning and examples with reference to U.K., U.S.A. and India.

3. Franchise and Representation

Universal Adult Franchise; Methods of Election; Constituency; Minority Representation. Political Parties; Party System.

Universal Adult Franchise – meaning, reasons for widespread acceptance.

Methods of Election: Direct and Indirect – meaning with examples.

Meaning of Constituency.

First Past the Post System – meaning only.

Minority Representation – Proportional Representation (meaning only).

Political Parties – meaning, kinds – Single party, Bi-party, Multi-party system – meaning.

Organs of the Government

4. The Legislature

Legislature; Unicameral and Bicameral legislatures. The legislature in India and U.S.A. – a comparative study.

Meaning of Legislature. Meaning of Unicameral and Bi-cameral legislatures. The legislatures in India and U.S.A.- Composition (strength, method of election and tenure) and functions: legislative, constituent, executive (ways in which the legislature controls the executive), judicial, electoral and financial.

Composition and powers of the House of Representatives and the Senate, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha (including special powers).

Why is the Senate considered the world’s most powerful second chamber?

Comparison of the Rajya Sabha and the U.S. Senate; Lok Sabha with the U.S. House of Representatives.

5. The Executive

Difference between the Political Executive and the Permanent Executive. Political Executive in India and U.S.A. – a comparative study.

Meaning of the Executive.

Difference between the Political and Permanent Executive in India. Political Executive in India and U.S.A. – a comparative study. Powers and functions of executive heads of India (President and Prime Minister) and U.S.A. (President).

6. The Judiciary

Meaning and functions of Judiciary. Conditions of Independence of Judiciary. Judiciary in India and U.S.A. – a comparative study. Judicial Review

Meaning and functions of judiciary; conditions of independence of judiciary with reference to India and U.S.A. The Judiciary in India and U.S.A. – composition and powers of Indian Supreme Court and American Supreme Court. Judicial Review -meaning, principles (maxims). Meaning of Judicial Activism and Judicial Restraint. Comparative study of Indian and US Supreme Courts.

Section B: Indian Democracy

7. Indian Constitution

(i) Preamble

Preamble and its importance. Meaning of the key words contained in the Preamble.

(ii) Salient features of the Indian Constitution.

Written and Comprehensive; a Constitution drawn from several sources; Federal structure with Unitary spirit; Partly rigid and Partly flexible; Fundamental Rights and Duties; Directive Principles of State Policy; Parliamentary form of Government; Single Citizenship; Bi-cameral legislature; Universal Adult Franchise; Single Integrated and Independent Judiciary; Judicial Review; Emergency powers; Special provisions for Schedule castes and Schedule tribes.

8. Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles

Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy.

Fundamental Rights: meaning; detailed study of all Fundamental Rights in India.

Directive Principles of State Policy: meaning and classification.

9. Local self-government

73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts.

Key features of the 73rd and 74th Amendments. 11th and 12th schedules in brief.

Composition and functions of Zila Parishad and Municipal Corporation.

10. Democracy in India – a perspective of the challenges faced

Challenges faced by the Indian Democracy: Caste, Communalism and Regionalism. Strengthening Indian Democracy.

Caste: meaning, role of caste in Indian Politics.

Communalism: meaning only.

Regionalism: meaning, forms of regionalism / kinds of regional aspirations (language issues, sons-of-the-soil policies, river water disputes, demand for new states, secessionist demands).

Strengthening Indian Democracy: measures to overcome the challenges faced by Indian Democracy.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Where can the candidate get the ISC Class 12 Sociology syllabus?

The ISC Class 12 Sociology syllabus can be found on the Extramarks website. The syllabus is updated as per the guidelines provided by the board.

2. What tips are to be followed while preparing for exams using ISC class 12 sociology syllabus?

Tips to secure well in exams using ISC Class 12 Sociology syllabus are:

  • Make sure that you have all the study material that you need. You may refer to the syllabus and then procure the notes.
  • Allot time for each topic. The syllabus will help you divide your time efficiently for study. Make a timetable based on the content of the syllabus and stick to it.
  • Refer to the academic year syllabus to ensure that you have not left out any topics while studying for your examination. 

Make sure that you refer to the latest syllabus while you prepare for an exam.