NCERT Books Class 12 Geography

CBSE Class 12 NCERT Books for Geography

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) textbooks for Geography are required reading for students taking the Class 12 CBSE exam so that they can improve their understanding of the environmental and social shifts that are taking place in nature. The content of the Geography Textbook for Class 12 has been organised in a way that is intended to give students a foundational understanding of the geography of the Earth.

Students are able to gauge their level of comprehension and prepare for tests more effectively by working through the exercise questions that are provided at the conclusion of each chapter. The NCERT Class 12 Geography PDF book is also available for students to download, and they should make sure to study using their electronic devices.

Extramarks makes it simple to obtain the NCERT textbooks required for students to complete their Geography coursework at the 12th-grade level. The website makes sure that all of the materials and PDFs are updated at the appropriate times in accordance with the standards that have been set by the CBSE. These NCERT books can be downloaded in PDF format, after which they can be used at any time and in any location, according to the requirements of the students.

NCERT Books Class 12 Geography 

Class 12th 
Board CBSE
Subject Geography
Language English / Hindi
Study Materials Free Study Materials Are Available
PDF Solutions  Solutions are available in PDF.

You can get the curated solutions that we have prepared for the books that you follow by clicking on the links provided below.

NCERT Books for Class 12 Geography

NCERT Books for Class 12

NCERT Solutions for Class 12

12th Class Geography Book Part 1 – Fundamentals of Human Geography

Chapter 1 – Human Geography Nature and Scope

In the first chapter, we discuss the significance of incorporating both a regional and a systematic perspective into one’s study of geography. Students are taught not just about the existence of life on earth but also about every other natural phenomenon that has ever taken place anywhere in the universe over any given amount of time.

The study of how people interact with their environments is known as “human geography,” and it’s one of the subfields of geography. This chapter is included in the NCERT Geography textbook for Class 12 so that students can acquire the foundational knowledge necessary to understand the relationship between nature and living things.

In addition, the students are evaluated on their level of comprehension via a set of questions that are posed at the conclusion of the activity. Not only will answering these questions help the students understand the material better, but it will also benefit their preparation for upcoming tests.

Chapter 2 – The World Population Distribution, Density and Growth

The idea of population dispersion is illustrated in more detail in the second chapter. It gives an account of the composition of the human race’s total population as it exists within a demographic. It is broken up into a few different categories based on the different ways that different parts of the earth’s surface are inhabited. People often believe that living in locations with a low population density is difficult, whereas living in areas with a high population density is thought to be more comfortable.

This book teaches readers about the entirety of the human population by covering topics such as population and its density in a certain region. The NCERT textbook for grade 12 geography includes a variety of different types of exercise problems, such as multiple-choice questions, questions that require students to differentiate between two terms, questions that require short replies and so on.

 Chapter 3 – Population Composition

Not just from the perspective of passing the exam, but also for the purpose of analysing how societies change over time and how people interact with one another, the third chapter on population composition is regarded as an essential topic. It examines the various ways in which people come together to form a group, as well as the ways in which they live and interact in the community, all of which are influenced by a variety of factors like age, sex, ethnicity and so on.

A population pyramid is used throughout the NCERT Geography textbook for Class 12 to provide a clear and concise explanation of the topic of population composition. The data on the population that has been amassed over time are compared using the pyramid. Learn everything there is to know about these subjects by reading this chapter in great detail.

Chapter 4 – Human Development

When one looks back over history, one can find evidence of the progression of humankind. However, this chapter from the Geography Book for Class 12 describes the main building blocks of human development, including ways for growth as well as the measurement of its progress. The students have the opportunity to understand the various terms for measuring and comparing the advances around the world.

The concept of human growth as an advancement in the standard of living for the purpose of allowing individuals the freedom to conduct their lives according to their own terms is discussed in this chapter. Continue reading the chapter to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the notion of human growth.

Chapter 5 – Primary Activities

These are the kinds of things that people did in the early days of our species and are commonly referred to as primitive activities. This chapter provides an overview of the principal pursuits that are essential to human existence in order for them to meet their fundamental requirements and maintain a satisfactory standard of living. If you download the Class 12 Geography Book in PDF format and read it, you will become acquainted with the many different activities that took place in the stone age.

After finishing the chapter, the students will be able to define a variety of terms, including farming, agricultural, hunting and more. Exercise questions are questions that are asked at the end of a chapter to challenge students and measure how well they understand the material.

Chapter 6 – Secondary Activities

This section of primitive activities is a lesson on how to take simple items or raw materials and transform them into finished commodities that may be used for a variety of things, like enhancing one’s quality of life. The secondary activity that is being discussed in this section of the Geography Class 12 NCERT PDF relates to the various industries that create products by using a single raw material or a combination of raw resources.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide students with a basic understanding of the notion of industrialisation as it relates to their immediate environments by providing definitions of the various types of industries, as well as their locations, classifications and processes. Learn everything there is to know by reading the chapter.

Chapter 7 – Tertiary and Quaternary Activities

The ideas of tertiary and quaternary activities are discussed in depth in the seventh chapter. The tertiary activities that are being discussed here can be divided up into four distinct categories, which include service, trade, transportation and communication. In a similar vein, activities revolving around the accumulation of information, such as research and development, the improvement of skills and technical competency and so on are classified as quaternary events.

You have the option of either reading the material online or downloading the NCERT Class 12 Geography PDF. Either way, you should make sure you learn these ideas at your own pace. Additionally, in order to get a head start on the upcoming test, you should start answering the practice questions and practising them right away.

Chapter 8 – Transport and Communication

This chapter comprises two vital topics, which have produced a revolutionary transformation in human life – Transport and communication. The ninth chapter of the NCERT Geography Class 12 PDF covers in depth the evolution of transport from pull carts to roadways, railways and motorways, water transport and air transport.

The development of long-distance communication was a transformative event for the history of humanity since it made it feasible for people to share knowledge across great distances and locations. This chapter demonstrates the many modes of communication, such as the telegraph, telephone, World Wide Web, etc. Read this chapter to obtain in-depth information on the topic.

Chapter 9 – International Trade

This chapter will discuss how the wave of the industrial revolution gave rise to international trade, which you will learn more about in the following chapter. When we talk about “international trade,” we imply the exchange of various goods between our two nations. A country that is not industrialised has the ability to import finished goods from a country that is industrialised and is capable of making those things.

This chapter of the NCERT Geography Book for the 12th grade explains the many commercial terms and modes of transportation available. In addition to this, it discusses the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the role that it plays in regulating economic globalisation and the global trading system. Learn every intricate detail there is to know about international trade by reading this chapter.

Chapter 10 – Human Settlements

The topic of human settlements is covered in Chapter 10 of the NCERT Geography Book for the 12th Class. It is evident that people have been living in a given place for a longer length of time than previously thought. This chapter provides information on a variety of human settlements, each of which may have a brief or lengthy lifespan and may undergo reorganisation or redesign.

In addition to providing students with an understanding of the principles presented, this chapter teaches them how to distinguish between a rural and an urban settlement. In addition, by carefully reading the chapter, one can acquire knowledge regarding the numerous forms of settlements, as well as their functions, types and so on.

NCERT 12 Geography Book Part 2 – People and Economy

Chapter 1 – Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences

Students will gain a better understanding of migration after reading this chapter. According to the information presented in the book, migration refers to the process through which an individual or family moves to a new habitat. This is typically the result of there being insufficient opportunities in a particular location. For instance, individuals opt for a habitat that is relatively safer and offers more opportunities than the one in which they are now residing because they want to improve their quality of life.

This chapter provides a more in-depth discussion of the different types, causes and factors of migration. Students can excel in their academic endeavours by downloading the 12th NCERT Geography Book as a PDF, which allows them to learn at their own pace and in their own comfort zone.

Chapter 2 – Land Resources and Agriculture

Students are required to memorise this Geography chapter because it is one of the most important ones in the subject. This chapter provides an overview of the land resources that are accessible to humanity as well as the proportion of that land that is used for a variety of purposes, ranging from farming and agriculture to wastelands. This chapter provides a condensed explanation of the myriad factors that influence land use in India.

In addition to this, the chapter from the NCERT Geography Book for Class 12 covers a variety of themes pertaining to agricultural land, the many types of food grains, the process of strategy development, the growth of agriculture in India and the challenges that are faced by farmers. Students can read the full chapter in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the land resources that are available in India.

Chapter 3 – Water Resources

Water is a resource that can naturally replenish itself and is essential to the survival of all forms of life. The possibility of existence in the absence of water is inconceivable, and  hence, the NCERT Geography Textbook for Class 12 includes this chapter as one of the fundamental building blocks of the subject. It includes discussions on a variety of water resources, the availability of freshwater, the occurrence of water scarcity, the management of water resources, river projects, and so on.

It examines the different pros and cons involved in putting these water management approaches into practice, and it gives students the opportunity to conduct an analysis of those pros and cons. As you read the chapter carefully, you will be able to acquire a comprehensive understanding of these ideas and their associated details. In addition, in order to improve your performance on tests, you should work through the exercise questions that are provided at the end of the chapter.

Chapter 4 – Mineral and Energy Resources

Minerals are elements that can be found in the ground and are the consequence of many natural processes that can take place over long or short periods of time. This chapter provides additional information regarding these minerals, including the many types of minerals that are available, the characteristics of these minerals and a distribution graph for these minerals in India. Students are provided with a variety of charts and maps within the new NCERT Geography Class 12 book in order to assist them in comprehending the locations across the world that are rich in a specific type of mineral.

In addition to minerals, this chapter provides an in-depth discussion of the many forms of renewable energy, such as wind energy, solar energy, bioenergy, geothermal energy, wave energy and so on. Students will be able to come to the realisation that they should avoid wasting resources that are finite and instead make use of resources that are renewable if they study the chapter thoroughly.

Chapter 5 – Manufacturing Industries

This chapter explains everything there is to know about manufacturing sectors, making it one of the most important chapters to study for the exam. It gives an overview of the several categories of manufacturing industries, categorising them according to variables like ownership, the raw materials used, the completed goods produced, location, and so on. It also comprises the primary economic sectors that are active in India as well as the factors that influence its location.

You can learn about these themes, as well as the petrochemical industries in India and the numerous features regarding them, by reading the NCERT Book for Geography Class 12 students. In order for students to ensure that they will perform better on the final exam, they should begin working on the exercise questions that are located at the conclusion of this chapter as soon as they can and practice answering them frequently.

Chapter 6 – Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context

This chapter is completely dedicated to discussing sustainable planning and development in India. Both the sector-wise and region-wise growth planning methodologies that are discussed here are based on the data presented in this article. Students will learn about the complexities of planning through discussion of a variety of planning and programming pertaining to target areas. It is important for students to be well informed of the many different positive and negative effects that can be had on the environment, which is why the necessity of sustainable development for the betterment of people and the environment are discussed in conjunction with planning.

This chapter from the NCERT Geography Book for the 12th Class helps students study all of these things and gives them practice questions so that they can be well prepared for upcoming examinations.

Chapter 7 – Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

The last chapter covers a variety of subjects that are crucial for students to study and acquire knowledge about, both, in terms of their performance on the examination and in a more general sense. This chapter provides an overview of the many different types of pollution that can be found in the environment, including water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, environmental pollution and many more. It also discusses the reasons behind these types of pollution, as well as their effects and ways to prevent them.

In addition to pollution, it covers a variety of other important problems, including migration trends, the classification of wastelands, land deterioration and other related issues. Students have the option of studying offline or downloading the NCERT Book for Class 12 Geography in PDF format and immediately beginning to investigate these essential ideas in order to enhance their existing knowledge and get a head start on exam preparation.

Why Is Class 12 Geography NCERT Book Important For Exams?

Books published by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) are the ones that the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and a number of other state boards favour using for the curriculum taught in schools. Therefore, in order for students to be able to cover the full curriculum and practice the exercise questions, the NCERT textbooks for Geography Class 12 must be studied by them. Students need to put in sufficient time to practice in order to be prepared to answer these important and varied questions effectively during examinations.

Why it is Essential to refer to Class 12 Geography NCERT  Books

  • Students need to increase their understanding of the fundamental principles in order to pursue an engaging and desirable career path. The explanations in the NCERT books are clear and concise, so students may easily grasp the fundamental ideas and emerge from their studies prepared to tackle the more difficult subject matter.
  • Students are able to have a better understanding of a variety of geographical issues through the mere reading of the chapters because of the straightforward language that is employed.
  • The NCERT Geography Class 12 Book is written by well-known writers and crafted by trained educators who have worked in this industry for a significant amount of time. They provide material after conducting exhaustive research in the most effective manner. They cover material that is both important and advanced, beginning with the most fundamental concepts and working their way up.
  • At the end of each chapter of the NCERT Geography books for Class 12, there is a set of exercise questions that cover the many subjects that were illustrated during the chapter. Students benefit in their board exams and other competitive examinations from studying them and practising them regularly.
  • They maintain the necessary quality standard that is stated by CBSE, despite the fact that they are written in a language that is straightforward and easy to comprehend. The books that students use to study geography in Class 12 from NCERT are written with an objective point of view and a natural flow, which helps students improve their communication abilities as well.


When studying a topic as significant as Geography, it is essential for students to highlight all of the key sections of their textbooks and go back over those passages on a regular basis in order to remember all of the material. One must keep in mind that earning marks in the subject of Geography is not difficult. However, in order to do so, one must also be prepared appropriately. This can be accomplished by reading the NCERT textbooks and studying the themes from Extramarks.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What topics will be covered in the Geography Class 12 Books?

Students who are interested in pursuing further education in the fields of Cartography or GIS have the option of taking Geography as an elective subject during their final year of high school. Issues pertaining to regional and urban planning as well as rural development, the environment and many other topics will be covered. The text that is required for Class 12 Geography may be quickly and simply obtained for free from Extramarks.

2. How can one best prepare themselves for the Geography Class 12 Exams?

Students can get ready for the exam by using the texts that are offered on the Extramarks website in a PDF format, and those that can also be accessed offline. They can do this by going to the Extramarks website. The students will be able to study more effectively for their examinations if they read and fully comprehend these NCERT solutions. In addition to this, Extramarks makes available to students the essential study resources and guidebooks that will attend to and satisfy the demands and requirements of the students. When taken together, all of these will assist students in preparing for the test in a comprehensive manner.


3. How can Extramarks help you to improve your academic performance?

Students get access to a variety of educational resources on the Extramarks e-learning site, including Class 12 Geography NCERT PDFs, solutions, revision notes, and even a live classroom programme. Students are able to study and gain an understanding of the fundamental concepts from NCERT books; nevertheless, they may have difficulty with the exercise questions. Therefore, we are here to assist you. You can sign up for our live classes in order to have any questions you have answered. Another option is to gain access to the NCERT 12 Geography PDF and study in the manner that is most suitable for them.