Lactose Formula

Lactose Formula

Lactose is a disaccharide, or sugar made up of the subunits of galactose and glucose. Lactose constitutes about 2-8% of milk. The Latin term lac, which means milk, and the suffix -ose, which is used to designate sugars, are the roots of the word lactose. Unsurprisingly, lactose is a white, water-soluble substance. It is used in the food sector. The Lactose Formula is C12H22O11.

Lactose digestion is challenging for the majority of people. To find extensive details about the Lactose Formula, its properties, uses, composition, etc., students can visit the Extramarks website and mobile application.

What is Lactose Formula?

Lactose, a disaccharide sugar found in milk, has the chemical formula C12H22O11.

  • Lactose consists of two monosaccharide molecules, glucose and galactose, connected by a β-glycosidic bond.
  • The structural formula for lactose is given as: β-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranose
  • The galactose unit is connected to the glucose unit at the fourth carbon atom, forming a β structure.

Lactose Structural Formula

Lactose, a disaccharide sugar present in milk, is made up of two monosaccharide units, glucose and galactose, connected by a β-glycosidic bond.

Within the structure:

  • The left monosaccharide unit is galactose.
  • The right monosaccharide unit is glucose.

The first carbon atom of galactose and the fourth carbon atom of glucose form a β-glycosidic connection.

Properties Of Lactose

The physical and chemical properties of lactose are mentioned below:

Physical Properties of Lactose

  • Lactose is commonly found as a white, odorless, crystalline powder.
  • It may also appear as small, colorless to pale yellow crystals.
  • Lactose is soluble in water, with approximately 18% solubility at room temperature.
  • The solubility of lactose increases with temperature, and it is more soluble in hot water than in cold water.
  • Lactose has a mildly sweet taste, although it is less sweet compared to other sugars such as sucrose.
  • Lactose has a melting point of approximately 202°C (396°F).
  • Lactose is stable under normal storage conditions, but it may degrade over time in the presence of moisture and high temperatures.
  • Lactose solutions have a slightly acidic pH, typically around 6.5 to 7.0

Chemical Properties of Lactose

  • Lactose can be hydrolyzed, which is a chemical reaction in which water separates the lactose molecule into its monosaccharides, glucose and galactose.
  • The hydrolysis reaction can take place under acidic, basic, or enzymatic conditions.
  • Lactose can be fermented by some microbes, specifically lactic acid bacteria.
  • Lactose is digested by bacteria during fermentation, resulting in lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and other byproducts.
  • Lactose can be oxidized under specific conditions, resulting in the creation of lactone molecules and other oxidation products.
  • Lactose is classed as a reducing sugar because it has a free anomeric carbon atom that can be oxidized.
  • Lactose can participate in glycation processes, in which reducing sugars combine with proteins or amino acids to produce glycosylated products.

Preparation of Lactose Formula

  • Lactose occurs naturally in milk, primarily in the form of lactose crystals.
  • To extract lactose from milk, it is first separated into its constituents using techniques such as centrifugation and filtering.
  • The lactose-containing portion is subsequently purified to produce lactose crystals.
  • Isolated lactose crystals may be purified to remove contaminants including proteins, lipids, and minerals.
  • In industrial settings, lactose can be created by enzymatic hydrolysis of whey, a byproduct of cheese production.
  • Whey, which contains lactose as well as proteins and other components, is processed using lactase, an enzyme that catalyzes lactose breakdown into its monosaccharides, glucose, and galactose.
  • The resulting glucose and galactose mixture can be further processed to obtain lactose.

Uses of Lactose

  • Lactose is used to sweeten a variety of culinary products, including confectionery, baked goods, and dairy desserts.
  • Lactose serves as a bulking agent in powdered food items, adding volume and texture.
  • Lactose adds to the flavor profile of foods and improves the taste of dairy products.
  • Lactose is used in food processing to improve the texture and binding qualities of meat products, cereal bars, and snack foods.
  • Lactose is commonly employed as a filler and binder in tablet formulations to increase bulk, enhance compressibility, and aid in medication dissolution.
  • Dry powder inhalers use lactose as a carrier for pulmonary drug delivery, which aids in medicine dispersion.

Side Effects of Lactose

  • Lactose intolerance can cause bloating, pain, and a feeling of fullness in the abdomen when gas accumulates in the digestive tract.
  • Undigested lactose can ferment in the colon, producing gas (mainly hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide), resulting in increased flatulence.
  • Lactose intolerance can cause increased bowel motions, loose stools, and diarrhea as the body tries to remove undigested lactose from the digestive tract.
  • Some people who are lactose intolerant may experience nausea, especially after consuming lactose-containing meals or beverages.
  • In severe cases of lactose intolerance, vomiting can occur due to gastrointestinal discomfort and distress.
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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is Chemical Name of Lactose?

The chemical name of Lactose is β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-glucose

2. What is the Chemical Formula of Lactose?

The chemical formula for lactose is C12H22O11

3. What is Lactose made of?

Lactose is made of two monosaccharides: D-glucose and D-galactose molecules joined in a β-1,4-glycosidic linkage

4. What is Lactose Intolerance?

Lactose intolerance is inability to digest lactose