Orbital Speed Formula

Orbital Speed Formula

“In orbital motion” refers to an object’s motion as it rotates uniformly in a circle around the Earth. The distance between the object and the Earth’s centre affects the orbit’s velocity. The velocity must be precisely calibrated to maintain a constant distance from the Earth’s centre. As a result, orbital speed is a necessary calculation.

Orbital Speed Formula

The velocity needed to maintain an orbit for a satellite, whether natural or artificial, is known as its Orbital Speed Formula. While being pulled downward by gravitational force, inertia propels the moving body in a straight line.

Thus, the circular or elliptical orbital path demonstrates a balance between inertia and gravity. The projectile will travel further if the muzzle velocity of a cannon shot from a mountaintop is increased. If the bullet travels high enough speed, it will never touch the ground. Imagine that the projectile, or satellite, is falling toward the Earth and its surface is curved away from it.

Concept of Orbital Speed:

The Orbital Speed Formula of a body, which is typically a planet or a natural satellite, is the rate at which it orbits the system’s centre. This system is generally centred on a massive body. The Earth orbits the sun at a speed of 108,000 kilometers per hour.

It is a formula that relates the mass of a given planet to its gravitational constant and radius. G, the “universal gravitational constant,” is a constant in the Orbital Speed Formula.

The speed at which Earth can escape is faster than what is needed to put an Earth satellite in orbit. The speed required for orbital motion is necessary to strike a balance between the pull of gravity on the satellite and its own inertia. This equates to approximately 27,359 km/h at an altitude of 242 km.

The intended satellite moves too quickly, even in the presence of gravity, and eventually flies away. Additionally, gravity will pull the satellite back to Earth if it travels too slowly. Gravity therefore precisely balances the satellite’s inertia at the proper Orbital Speed Formula.

The satellite’s Orbital Speed Formula is determined by its altitude above the Earth. A satellite must orbit at a speed of about 11,300 km/h in order to keep its orbit 35,786 km above the Earth. The satellite can complete one rotation in precisely 24 hours thanks to its orbital velocity and distance.

Because the satellite is always hovering over the same location. As a result, this type of orbit, known as “Geostationary Orbit,” is ideal for weather satellites.

Therefore, the satellite can remain in orbit for a longer period of time the higher the orbit. Since there is almost no drag at higher altitudes, where the vacuum of space is almost complete, a satellite like a moon can remain in orbit for centuries.

The formula for the orbital speed:

Depending on how high it is above the Earth, a satellite’s orbital velocity changes as it moves around the planet. The satellite is closer to the Earth, the higher its orbital velocity. It is determined by taking the square root of the difference between the body’s mass and gravitational constant multiplied by the orbital radius. In the Orbital Speed Formula where G is the gravitational constant, M is the object’s mass at the centre, and R is the radius of the orbit.

Solved Examples

Students can easily check the Orbital Speed Formula practice question or sample question on the Extramarks website and mobile application. Extramarks have a bundle of sample examples of the Orbital Speed Formula. Therefore, it’s straightforward to understand the Orbital Speed Formula and make the exam preparation.

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