CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus

CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus for Term (1 & 2) 2023-24

The CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus is crafted to give you comprehensive knowledge about foundational Biology. Studying the syllabus thoroughly, understanding its concepts, solving questions and regular revision will allow you to graduate class 11 with a good score. NCERT Books present the curriculum in simple and clear language to make it easier for the students to understand the concepts. The CBSE board follows the NCERT syllabus, and hence solutions from NCERT book are widely accepted in examinations. The topics included in the CLASS 11 CBSE biology syllabus  are prerequisites for class 12. Hence skipping any of them is not advisable. The initial step toward getting acquainted with the subject is to glance through its syllabus and visit the topics you find interesting. 

CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus 2023-24

You can access  the CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus here. Here is a brief idea of the chapters that would be covered in Class 11 CBSE Biology Syllabus over the two terms.


Sr. no.  Chapters for Term 1 Chapters for Term 2 
1 The Living World  Cell Cycle and Cell Division
2 Biological Classification Photosynthesis in Higher Plants 
3 Plant Kingdom Respiration in Plants
4 Animal Kingdom Plant Growth & Development 
5 Morphology of Flowering Plants Breathing and Exchange of Gases
6 Structural Organisation in Animals Body Fluids and Circulation
7 Cell: The Unit of Life  Excretory Products and their Elimination
8 Biomolecules Locomotion and Movement 
9 Practicals Neural Control and Coordination
10 Chemical Coordination and Integration
11 Practicals


Biology Class 11 Syllabus 2023-24

This CBSE SYLLABUS of year 2023-24 presents updated concepts and findings. The syllabus is divided into 5 units, which are further divided into chapters. You start the curriculum with the first chapter of Unit I and progress up to the last chapter of Unit 5. The academic journey is taken in two parts, Term 1 and Term 2. Units 1, 2, and 3 are studied for Term 1, and Units 3,4 and 5 are covered in Term 2. At the end of each term there is an examination. Satisfactory scores in both examinations are required to progress into class 12. 

CBSE Class 11 Bio Syllabus Term 1 & 2 2023-24 Theory:

In term 1, you get introduced to the identification and classification concepts of the living world. You study plants and animals and their distinct structures. 

In term 2, you study how different cells form one organ which performs a unique function. You discover important functions which keep entities alive and healthy. 

Term 1 Term 2
Unit Chapter Unit Chapter
Unit 1: Diversity of Living Organisms Chap.1-The Living World  Unit 3: Cell: Structure and Function Chap.10-Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Chap.2-Biological Classification Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chap.13-Photosynthesis in Higher Plants 
Chap. 3-Plant Kingdom
Chap.4-Animal Kingdom Chap.14 Respiration in Plants
Unit 2: Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals Chap. 5-Morphology of Flowering Plants Chap.15- Plant Growth & Development 
Chap.7 – Structural Organisation in Animals Unit 5: Human Physiology Chap.17-Breathing and Exchange of Gasses
Unit 3: Cell: Structure and Function Chap.8-Cell: The Unit of Life  Chap.18-Body Fluids and Circulation
Chap.9-Biomolecules Chap. 19Excretory Products and their Elimination
Chap. 20-Locomotion and Movement 
Chap. 21-Neural Control and Coordination


CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Biology Term 1 & 2 2023-24 Practicals:

Practical lectures are conducted ‌alongside theory lectures. Practicals carry considerable marks and are an important part of the curriculum.

Type of Work Term 1 Term 2 
One Major Experiment Experiment No. – 1 Experiment No. – 3 and 4
One Minor Experiment Experiment No. – 2 Experiment No. – 5,6, and 7 
Spotting  B.1, 2, 3 B.4, 5
Practical + Project work + Viva 

Biology Class 11 Syllabus

Examination is an essential part of the curriculum. Exam questions ‌test your understanding of the concepts. Two exams are conducted in one academic year. Scores of both exams are put together and weighed against the minimum marks required to graduate class 11. 

Use NCERT Books to prepare well. The examination is moderately difficult, but the evaluation is strict and thorough. Make sure you solve CBSE Sample Papers and CBSE Previous Year Question Paper to get a better idea of what to expect.An overview of topic-wise distribution of marks helps in planning your studies. 

Overview of Class 11 Biology Syllabus Marks Division

Class 11 Biology Syllabus Marks Division Term 1 & 2 – Theory:

Unit Chapters for Term 1 Marks
I Diversity of Living Organisms: Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 15
II Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals: Chapters 5, 6, and 7 08
III Cell: Structure and Function: Chapters 8 and 9 12
Total  35


Unit Chapters in Term 2 Marks
III Cell Structure and Function: Chapter 10 05
IV Plant Physiology: Chapters 13,14 and 15 12
V Human Physiology: Chapters 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22 18
Total  35
Term 1 + Term 2 Total 70

Class 11 Biology Syllabus Marks Division Term 1 & 2 – Practical:

Type of Work Term 1 Marks  Term 2  Marks
One Major Experiment Experiment No. – 1 4 Experiment No. – 3 and 4 4
One Minor Experiment Experiment No. – 2 3 Experiment No. – 5,6, and 7  3
Spotting  B.1, 2, 3 3 B.4, 5 3
Practical + Project work + Viva  5 5
Total 15 15

Theory Syllabus of Biology Class 11 CBSE

The theory syllabus aims to impart a basic understanding of biology, which is useful not only in a professional career but also in personal life. 

Unit I: Diversity of Living Organisms 

Chapter 1: The Living World

Chapter 2: Biological Classification

Chapter 3: Plant Kingdom

Chapter 4: Animal Kingdom

Unite II: Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals

Chapter 5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Chapter 7: Structural Organisation in Animals

Unit III: Cell: Structure and Function

Chapter 8: Cell-The Unit of Life

Chapter 9: Biomolecules

Chapter 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Unit IV: Plant Physiology

Chapter 11: Transport in Plants

Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition

Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants

Chapter 15: Plant – Growth and Development

Unit V: Human Physiology

Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption

Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Chapter 19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination

Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement

Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination

Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

Practical CBSE Biology Class 11 Syllabus

A: Experiments

Term 1:

  1. Study and describe a locally available common flowering plant from any one family:

Solanaceae or Liliaceae. Dissection and display of floral whorls, anther and ovary to show the number of chambers.  

  1. Study of osmosis by a potato osmometer.

Term 2

  1. Separation of plant pigments through paper chromatography.
  2. Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surfaces of leaves.
  3. Study of the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds.
  4. Test for presence of sugar in urine.
  5. Test for presence of albumin in urine.
  6. Study/Observation of the following (Spotting):

Term 1:

B.1 Parts of a compound microscope.

B.2 Specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons – Bacteria, Oscillatoria,

Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant, one dicotyledonous plant and one lichen.

B.3 Virtual specimens/slides/models and identifying features of – Amoeba, Hydra, liver fluke,

Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog,

lizard, pigeon and rabbit.

Term 2:

B.4 Tissues and diversity in shape and size of animal cells (squamous epithelium, smooth,

skeletal and cardiac muscle fibres and mammalian blood smear) through

temporary/permanent slides.

B.5 Mitosis in onion root tip cells and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.

BIOLOGY (Code No. 044)

Classes XI & XII (2022-23)

The present curriculum provides the students with updated concepts along with an extended exposure to contemporary areas of the subject. The curriculum also aims at emphasizing the underlying principles that are common to animals, plants and microorganisms as well as highlighting the relationship of Biology with other areas of knowledge. The format allows a simple, clear, sequential flow of concepts. It relates the study of biology to real life through the developments in use of technology. It links the discoveries and innovations in biology to everyday life such as environment, industry, health and agriculture. The updated curriculum also focuses on understanding and application of scientific principles, while ensuring that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic concepts continue to be available within itsframework. The prescribed syllabus is expected to:

  • promote understanding of basic principles of Biology
  • encourage learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and society
  • promote rational/scientific attitude towards issues related to population, environment and development
  • enhance awareness about environmental issues, problems and their appropriate solutions
  • create awareness amongst the learners about diversity in the living organisms and developing respect for other living beings
  • appreciate that the most complex biological phenomena are built on essentially simple processes

It is expected that the students would get an exposure to various branches of Biology in the curriculum in a more contextual and systematic manner as they study its various units.


CLASS XI (2022 -23) (THEORY)

Time: 03 Hours Max. Marks: 70

Unit Title Marks
I Diversity of Living Organisms 15
II Structural Organization in Plants and Animals 10
III Cell: Structure and Function 15
IV Plant Physiology 12
V Human Physiology 18
Total 70

Unit-I Diversity of Living Organisms

Chapter-1: The Living World

Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature

Chapter-2: Biological Classification

Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom

Classification of plants into major groups; Salient and distinguishing features and a few examples of Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae (Topics excluded – Angiosperms, Plant Life Cycle and Alternation of Generations)

Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom

Salient features and classification of animals, non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (salient features and at a few examples of each category).

(No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)

Unit-II Structural Organization in Animals and Plant Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. Description of family Solanaceae

Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Anatomy and functions of tissue systems in dicots and monocots.

Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals

Morphology, Anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory,respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of frog.

Unit-III Cell: Structure and Function Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life, structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus.

Chapter-9: Biomolecules

Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzyme – types, properties, enzyme action. (Topics excluded: Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer, Dynamic State of Body Constituents

  • Concept of Metabolism, Metabolic Basis of Living, The Living State)

Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance

Unit-IV Plant Physiology Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development

Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA;

Unit-V Human Physiology Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Chapter-19: Excretory Products and their Elimination

Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.

Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement

Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle, contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal systems – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination

Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse

Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease.

Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.


Time: 03 Hours Max. Marks: 30

Evaluation Scheme Marks
One Major Experiment Part A (Experiment No- 1,3,7,8) 5 Marks
One Minor Experiment Part A (Experiment No- 6,9,10,11,12,13) 4 Marks
Slide Preparation Part A (Experiment No- 2,4,5) 5 Marks
Spotting Part B 7 Marks
Practical Record + Viva Voce (Credit to the students’ work over theacademic session may be given) 4 Marks
Project Record + Viva Voce 5 Marks
Total 30Marks

A: List of Experiments

  1. Study and describe locally available common flowering plants, from family Solanaceae (Poaceae, Asteraceae or Brassicaceae can besubstituted in case of particular geographical location) including dissection and display of floral whorls, anther and ovary to show number of chambers (floral formulae and floral diagrams), type of root (tap and adventitious); type of stem (herbaceous and woody); leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound).
  2. Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).
  3. Study of osmosis by potato
  4. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo/lily leaves or flashy scale leaves of onion bulb).
  5. Study of distribution of stomata on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves.
  6. Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surfaces of
  7. Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats in suitable plant and animal
  8. Separation of plant pigments through paper
  9. Study of the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating
  10. Test for presence of urea in
  11. Test for presence of sugar in
  12. Test for presence of albumin in
  13. Test for presence of bile salts in urine.

B. Study and Observe the following (spotting):

  1. Parts of a compound microscope.
  2. Specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons – Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant, one dicotyledonous plant and one
  3. Virtual specimens/slides/models and identifying features of – Amoeba, Hydra,liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honey bee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and
  4. Mitosis in onion root tip cells and animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.
  5. Different types of inflorescence (cymose and racemose).
  6. Human skeleton and different types of joints with the help of virtual images/models only.

Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students Class XI

Note: The ‘Evaluation schemes’ and ‘General Guidelines’ for visually impaired students as given for Class XII may be followed.

A. Items for Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus /equipments/animal and plant material / chemicals. for assessment in practicals (All experiments)

  1. Equipments – compound microscope, test tube, petridish, chromatography paper, chromatography chamber, beaker, scalpel

Chemical – alcohol

Models – Model ofHuman skeleton to show – Ball and socket joints of girdles and limbs, Rib cage, Honey comb, Mollusc shell, Pigeon and Star fish, cockroach

Specimen/Fresh Material – mushroom, succulents such as Aloe vera/kalenchoe, raisins, potatoes, seeds of monocot and dicot- maize and gram or any other plant, plants of Solanaceae – Brinjal, Petunia, any other

C. List of Practicals

  1. Study locally available common flowering plants of the family – Solanaceae and

identify type of stem (Herbaceous or Woody), type of leaves (Compound or Simple).

  1. Study the parts of a compound microscope- eye piece and objective lens, mirror, stage, coarse and fine adjustment knobs.
  2. Differentiate between monocot and dicot plants on the basis of venation
  3. Study the following parts of human skeleton (Model): Ball and socket joints of thigh and shoulder
  4. Rib cage
  5. Study honeybee/butterfly, snail/sheik snail through shell, Starfish, Pigeon (through models).
  6. Identify the given specimen of a fungus – mushroom, gymnosperm-pine cone
  7. Identify and relate the experimental set up with the aim of experiment: For Potato Osmometer/endosmosis in raisins.

Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than only recording observations.

Prescribed Books:

  1. Biology Class-XI, Published by NCERT
  2. Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)

CLASS XII (2022-23) (THEORY)

Time: 03 Hours Max. Marks: 70

Unit Title Marks
VI Reproduction 16
VII Genetics and Evolution 20
VIII Biology and Human Welfare 12
IX Biotechnology and its Applications 12
X Ecology and Environment 10
Total 70

Unit-VI Reproduction Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis

-spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy;

elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene

expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation andmicrobes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.


Time allowed: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 30

Evaluation Scheme Marks
One Major Experiment 5 5
One Minor Experiment 2 & 3 4
Slide Preparation 1& 4 5
Spotting 7
Practical Record + Viva Voce (Credit to the students’ work over theacademic session may be


Investigatory Project and its Project Record + Viva Voce 5
Total 30

A. List of Experiments

  1. Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen
  2. Study the plant population density by quadrat
  3. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat
  4. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study
  5. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya,

B. Study and observer the following (Spotting):

  1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
  2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron
  3. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
  4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
  5. S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
  6. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any
  7. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colour
  8. Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging
  9. Common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they
  10. Models specimen showing symbolic association in root modules of leguminous plants, Cuscuta on host, lichens.
  11. Flash cards models showing examples of homologous and analogous

Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of Classes XI and XII

Evaluation Scheme

Time: 02 Hours Max. Marks: 30

Topic Marks
Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus 5
Written test (Based on given / prescribed practicals) 10
Practical Records 5
Viva 10
Total 30

General Guidelines

  • The practical examination will be of two hour A separate list of ten experiments is included here.
  • The written examination in practicals for these students will be conducted at the time of practical examination of all other
  • The written test will be of 30 minutes
  • The question paper given to the students should be legibly typed. It should contain a total of 15 practical skill based very short answer type questions. A student would be required to answer any 10 questions.
  • A writer may be allowed to such students as per CBSE examination
  • All questions included in the question paper should be related to the listed practicals. Every question should require about two minutes to be answered.
  • These students are also required to maintain a practical file. A student is expected to record at least five of the listed experiments as per the specific instructions for each These practicals should be duly checked and signed by the internal examiner.
  • The format of writing any experiment in the practical file should include aim, apparatus required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions
  • Questions may be generated jointly by the external/internal examiners and used for
  • The viva questions may include questions based on basic theory / principle / concept, apparatus / materials / chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error

Class XII

  1. Items for Identification/ familiarity with the apparatus for assessment in practicals (All experiments) Beaker, flask, petriplates, soil from different sites – sandy, clayey, loamy, small potted plants, aluminium foil, paint brush, test tubes, starch solution, iodine, ice cubes, Bunsen burner/spirit lamp/water bath, large flowers, Maize inflorescence, model of developmental stages highlighting morula and blastula of frog, beads/seeds of different shapes/size/texture Ascaris, Cactus/Opuntia(model).

B. List of Practicals

  1. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects).
  2. Identification of S of morula or blastula of frog (Model).
  3. Study of Mendelian inheritance pattern using beads/seeds of different sizes/texture.
  4. Preparation of pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, colour
  5. Study of emasculation, tagging and bagging by trying out an exercise on controlled
  6. Identify common disease causing organisms like Ascaris (model)and learn some commonsymptoms of the disease that they
  7. Comment upon the morphological adaptations of plants found in xerophytic

Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording observations.

Prescribed Books:

  1. Biology, Class-XII, Published by NCERT
  2. Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)
  3. Biology Supplementary Material (Revised). Available on CBSE

Question Paper Design (Theory) 2022-23 Class XII

Biology (044)


Demonstrate Knowledge and Understanding

Application of Knowledge / Concepts 30%

Analyse, Evaluate and Create




  • Typology of questions: VSA including MCQs, Assertion – Reasoning type questions; SA; LA- I; LA-II; Source-based/ Case-based/ Passage-based/ Integrated assessment
  • An internal choice of approximately 33% would be

Suggestive verbs for various competencies

  • Demonstrate, Knowledge and Understanding

State, name, list, identify, define, suggest, describe, outline, summarize, etc.

· Application of Knowledge/Concepts

Calculate, illustrate, show, adapt, explain, distinguish, etc.

· Analyze, Evaluate and Create

Interpret, analyse, compare, contrast, examine, evaluate, discuss, construct, etc.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Which is the best book to study from for CBSE Class 11 Biology syllabus?

NCERT Books are the best books to prepare for competitive exams.. These notes are up to date and concise which is also recommended by CBSE. . They are just apt for  describing the concepts and  explaining  the topics in a simple and understandable way. Also refer to CBSE Revision Notes for quick solutions.

2. Does it help to solve sample question papers?

Definitely! Solving CBSE Sample Papers definitely helps you strengthen your understanding of the subjects. It also gets you habituated to solve questions in time-bound conditions that are ideal for this purpose. Students  should also look at CBSE Extra Questions. It lists alternate questions that are sometimes asked in the exam.

3. How to study class 11 Biology to score well in this examination?

Study chapter one; take a test on it; revise chapter 1. Study chapter 2, take a test on it; revise Chapter 2 and 1. Study chapter 3, take a test on it; revise chapters 1, 2 and 3. Regular revision followed by tests and feedback does go a long way in improving the preparation in the long run. Continue this practice until you complete the syllabus. Follow a ‘study – test – revision’ routine, you will clear the test with flying colours

4. Are there equations and formulas in Biology?

Certainly, there are a few equations and formulas under some topics in Biology. They are usually used to represent a process. 

5. How can Extramarks help you with your studies?

Extramarks offers you a detailed syllabus which you can refer to right at the offset of your academic year. This would help you to plan your exam preparation well. Furthermore, Extramarks provides you with CBSE Sample Papers and CBSE Previous Year Question Papers , which will help you understand the pattern of the exam.