Cyanide Formula

Cyanide Formula 

Cyanide is a group of compounds with anion CN-. They are generally considered to be toxic in nature. The chemical formula for cyanide is given as CN-. Here, in this post post by Extramarks learn all the details relared to cyanide.

What is Cyanide?

Cyanide is a chemical molecule made of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom (CN-). It is a very poisonous and fast-acting toxin that inhibits the body’s ability to use oxygen. Cyanide can take several forms, including hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sodium cyanide (NaCN), and potassium cyanide (KCN), among others.

Occurrence of Cyanide

Cyanide can occur naturally in various forms and can also be produced synthetically by chemical processes. Natural Sources such as Plants, microorganisms and volcanic activity. It also occurs in anthropogenic activities such as Industrial Processes, combustion, waste disposal etc.

Cyanide Formula

The chemical formula for cyanide is generally CN-. It is made up of one carbon atom (C) and one nitrogen atom (N) bound together in a triple bond. Cyanide ions have a negative charge, indicating that they are anions.

Cyanide Formula Structure

Cyanide ions (CN-) have a linear molecular structure. It is made up of one carbon atom (C) covalently linked to one nitrogen atom (N) by a triple bond. The triple bond is composed of one σ bond and two π bonds.

In the cyanide ion, the carbon atom has a formal positive charge (+1) while the nitrogen atom has a formal negative charge (-1). This charge distribution is due to the difference in electronegativity between carbon and nitrogen, with nitrogen being more electronegative. As a result, electrons in the triple bond are more strongly drawn to the nitrogen atom, giving it a partial negative charge while leaving the carbon atom with a partial positive charge.

Properties of Cyanide

Cyanide has following properties:

Physical Properties of Cyanide

Cyanide compounds can exist in three different physical states: gasses (e.g., hydrogen cyanide), solids (e.g., sodium cyanide), and liquids (e.g., cyanogen chloride).

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a colorless gas that emits a bitter almond-like odor at low concentrations. However, several cyanide compounds, such sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide, are white solids with little to no odor.

Cyanide compounds can be quite soluble in water. For example, sodium and potassium cyanide are easily soluble in water, resulting in very hazardous solutions.

Melting and boiling points for cyanide compounds vary depending on the chemical. For example, hydrogen cyanide has a boiling point of -13.24°C and a melting point of 563°C.

Chemical Properties of Cyanide

Cyanide chemicals are extremely poisonous to humans and other species. They interfere with cellular respiration by blocking cytochrome c oxidase, which prevents cells from using oxygen.

Cyanide compounds can act as weak acids or bases, depending on the component and the environment. Hydrogen cyanide can ionize in water, forming cyanide ions (CN^-) that react with acids or bases.

Complex Formation: Cyanide ions have a high affinity for specific metal ions, resulting in stable complexes known as metal cyanide complexes. These compounds are frequently extremely soluble in water and can be employed in a variety of industrial applications, including gold and silver mining.

Reactivity: Cyanide compounds are reactive and can take part in a variety of chemical processes, including nucleophilic addition.

Uses of Cyanide

  • Cyanide compounds, including sodium cyanide (NaCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN), are commonly utilized in the extraction of gold and silver from ores.
  • Cyanide compounds are employed in electroplating techniques to deposit thin layers of metal on surfaces for decorative or practical reasons.
  • Cyanide compounds are utilized as intermediates in the manufacture of a variety of organic molecules, such as medicines, polymers, and synthetic fibers.
  • Cyanide compounds have long been used as pesticides to control pests including rodents and insects.
  • Cyanide compounds have limited medical applications, primarily for the treatment of specific medical diseases such as cyanide poisoning.

Health Hazards of Cyanide

Acute Toxicity: Cyanide chemicals disrupt cellular respiration by blocking cytochrome C oxidase, preventing cells from using oxygen. This can cause sudden onset of symptoms and death within minutes to hours of exposure.

Inhaling cyanide gas or vapors can result in respiratory discomfort, trouble breathing, and respiratory collapse.

Ingestion of cyanide compounds may result in nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal bleeding.

Neurological Effects: Cyanide poisoning can cause neurological symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, confusion, convulsions, and unconsciousness.

Cardiovascular Effects: Cyanide exposure can result in rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and cardiovascular collapse.


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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is Formula of Cyanide?

The formula of cyanide is CN-

2. Is Cyanide Poisonous?

Yes, cyanide is poisonous in nature

3. Give Some Examples of Cyanide Compounds.

Some examples of cyanide compounds are potassium cyanide(KCN), Sodium Cyanide(NaCN), Hydrogen Cyanide(HCN)