# Transformer Formula

## Transformer Formula

In order to transfer electrical energy between two circuits, a transformer converts the rotation of one shaft into the other. It is a component of a circuit whose main duty is to transform electromotive forces (EMFs) into other forms. Step-up transformers are the most prevalent type of transformer, but voltage regulators and step-down transformers are also available.

In this article, the transformer formula is explained with examples.

Any device that changes one form of energy into another is sometimes referred to as a “transformer” in a more general sense. In actuality, this term only applies to electrical transformers that transform voltage or power at one frequency into voltage or power at a different frequency. In some cases, it also applies to non-electrical devices that use transducers rather than conductors, such as turbogenerators and methanol converters. The transformer formula can be easily understood by the end of this article.

### Transformer

A transformer converts the alternating voltage into a different kind of energy. It’s known as transforming. It can be used to convert alternating current (AC) into a direct current of different strengths (DC). For instance, if you plug an electric heater into a wall outlet and turn it on, DC energy will be produced and circulate throughout your home. Transformers can also be used to convert AC energy to DC energy or the other way around. Rectification, which means “to convert,” is the name given to the transformation of AC electricity. The concept of a transformer formula will not be as daunting for students if they study in a proper and organised manner.

### Transformer Formula

The transformer formula is an equation that can be used to calculate how much voltage or current can pass through a particular transformer. The output voltage, current, and power of a single step-up transformer can be determined using the transformer formula. The transformer formula can also be applied to cores with multiple turns and various winding types.

To determine the output voltage or current for two different windings operating in parallel, use the transformer ratio formula. This makes it possible to figure out the output voltage or current for two different windings connected in series (one on each side). The number of times more turns there are per unit length than in the primary winding, but fewer than one turn, is referred to as the “turn ratio” (for example, if there are five turns per unit length and three turns on each side). Transformer Formula along with turn ratio formula are thoroughly explained by Extramarks’ experience and expert faculty.

### Transformer Equation can be Written As

Vp×Ip=Vs×Is

If we know the input voltage and the number of turns on the primary and secondary coils, we can calculate the transformer output voltage.

Input Voltage on the Primary Coil/Output Voltage on the Secondary Coil =  Number of turns of Wire on the Primary Coil/Number of turns of Wire on the Secondary Coil

### Transformer Equation Can be Written as Follows

Vp/Vs=Np/Ns

Where,

Vp  = Primary voltage

Vs = Secondary voltage

Np = number of turns in the primary

Ns = number of turns in the secondary

Is = Input current on the secondary coil

Ip = Input current on the primary coil

### Definition of Transformer Formula

The transformer’s efficiency is determined by the transformer formula. The transformer is a piece of electrical equipment that uses magnetic induction to move electricity from one circuit to another. Instead of wires with voltage differences, the transformer has two coils: a primary coil and a secondary coil. People use transformers on a daily basis for a variety of purposes, such as inductors or motor protection devices. Step-up and step-down transformers are the two different types of transformers. Transformer formula is an important part of Physics and with the Extramarks’ study resources, students can tackle the topic and the subject really well.

### Types of Transformer Formulas

Step-up Transformer: A step-up transformer is used to boost an electrical current’s voltage. It accomplishes this by transforming a low voltage input into a higher voltage output. The primary coil of the step-up transformer has more turns, which helps it achieve this.

A step-up transformer raises a low voltage to a higher voltage by increasing the primary coil’s number of turns. With an input of 12 volts and an output of 120 volts, the image above demonstrates how to do this. The primary coil’s increased number of turns is what causes the voltage to rise, which in turn results in a fall in current. This is significant because it enables the use of smaller wires for long-distance power transmission.

The boost converter function of the step-up transformer transforms low DC voltage into high-voltage AC voltage. This is used to power equipment like electric motors that require a high voltage. There is a transformer formula that explains the working of a step-up transformer.

Step-Down Transformer: The voltage of an electrical current can be lowered using a step-down transformer. It accomplishes this by adding more turns to the secondary coil.

A step-down transformer lowers the voltage from a high voltage to a lower voltage by increasing the secondary coil’s number of turns. With a 120-volt input and a 12-volt output, the aforementioned image demonstrates how to do this. A secondary coil with more turns has a higher voltage because more turns mean less resistance and less energy loss, which results in higher efficiency than a coil with fewer turns. There is also a transfer formula to explain how a step-down transformer functions.

### Turn Ratio

While transformer formula is an important part of Physics, so is Turn Ratio. A way to quantify whether the secondary coil of a transformer has more or fewer windings than the primary. The number of windings on a primary coil is equal to “Np”, while the number of windings on a secondary coil is “Ns”, indicating the number of turns.

Transformer Efficiency = Output Voltage / Input Voltage * Turn Ratio (Ns/Np) is the formula for a transformer.

High-turn-ratio transformers are more power-efficient than low-turn-ratio transformers because they have more coils or wires wrapped around one another internally with less resistance. If their input and output are compared, they can also be utilised for voltage step-up applications. Many appliances, including microwaves, washing machines, and TVs, contain transformers.

To determine a transformer’s efficiency, use the transformer formula. The transformer is a piece of electrical equipment that uses magnetic induction to move electricity from one circuit to another. Instead of wires with voltage differences, the transformer has two coils: a primary coil and a secondary coil. People use transformers on a daily basis for a variety of purposes, such as inductors or motor protection devices. Step-up and step-down transformers are the two different types of transformers. Studying turn ratio along with the transformer formula can ensure students get a holistic understanding of the topic and the subject.

### Some Common Applications for a Step-up Transformer Are as Follows

• the process of raising the low voltages produced by solar panels or batteries to the higher voltage needed by appliances or electrical equipment
• Step-up converter to power 24 or 48 volt loads from 12 volt DC systems
• Increasing the voltage of an AC system to charge lithium-ion or lead-acid batteries

### Efficiency of Transformer Formula

The ratio of a transformer’s output in watts (or kW) to its input in watts (or kW) is represented by the letter “η” (and is also known as commercial efficiency).

The efficiency of a transformer formula is as simple as this:

Efficiency = Output Power divided by Output Power+Losses, which is then multiplied by a 100%

### Transformer Turns Ratio Formula

The transformer turns ratio is calculated by dividing the primary winding’s turns by the secondary coil’s turns. The predicted performance of the transformer and the voltage needed on the secondary winding are both impacted by the transformer turns ratio. Step-down transformers must have fewer turns on the secondary than on the primary when a secondary voltage less than the primary voltage is required. Step-up transformers must have more turns on the secondary. The voltage and current ratios of an ideal transformer are directly related to the number of turns on the secondary. This is because when the transformer turns ratio steps-down the voltage, it steps-up the current, and vice versa. The transformer turns ratio formula is just as important as the transformer formula itself. The transformer formula and the transformer turn ratio formula are both a critical part of the chapter discussing transformers.

### The Transformer Ratio Formula for Voltage Is as Follows

The Transformer Ratio Formula for Voltage Is as Follows

K=V1/V2

Where,

V1 = Primary Voltage

and

V2 = Secondary Voltage

### The Transformer Ratio Formula for Current Is as Follows

K=I1/I2

Where,

I1 = Primary current

and

I2 = Secondary current

### Step-up Transformer Formula

The Step-up transformer formula is as follows:

T2/T1=V2/V1

Where,

V1 =  Voltage in the secondary coil, V2 =  Voltage in the primary coil.

T2 = Turns on the secondary coil, T1= Turns on the primary coil.

### Step Down Transformer Formula

A step-down transformer changes the primary voltage from high to low. In a step down transformer, the primary winding of a coil has more turns than the secondary winding.

### The Step Down Transformer Formula Is as Follows

The step-down transformer formula is given below

Vs=Ns/Np×Vp

Where,

Vp = Primary voltage

Vs = Secondary voltage

Np = number of turns in the primary

Ns  = Number of turns in the secondary

### Solved Examples

The example given below uses the transformer formula

Ex.1. The number of primary and secondary windings is 90 and 120 respectively. The secondary voltage is given by 310V, which determines the primary voltage.

Solution:

Given:

Np = 90,

Ns= 120

Vs = 310V

By using the transformer calculation formula, we get:

Vp/Vs=Np/Ns

Vp=Ns/Np x VS

VP= 90/120  x 310

Vp = 232.5 volt

## FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

### 1. Describe the transformer formula.

The transformer formula explains how the product of the voltage and the current intensity yields the power value for an electric circuit. The value of the power in the primary is equal to the value of the power in the secondary, just like in the case of a transformer:

(input voltage applied to the primary coil) x (input current applied to the primary coil) = (output voltage applied to the secondary coil) x (output current to the secondary coil)

### 2. For what does a transformer serve?

Transformers are used in power plants, communication systems, and other locations where a lot of electricity travels a long way.