Maleic Acid Formula

Maleic Acid Formula

Maleic acid is an inorganic white crystalline solid containing two carboxyl groups (COOH molecules). There is a cis-isomer of butenedioic acid called Maleic Acid Formula, which is less stable in nature. In addition to being soluble in water, it is combustible as well. There is a faint odour associated with Maleic Acid Formula.

Properties Of Maleic Acid

The heat of combustion of maleic acid is -1,355 kJ/mol, which is 22.7 kJ/mol higher than fumaric acid. The solubility of maleic acid in water is higher than that of fumaric acid. In addition, maleic acid’s melting point (135 °C) is much lower than fumaric acid’s (287 °C). Maleic acid’s two properties can be explained by the intramolecular hydrogen bonding that occurs at the expense of intermolecular interactions, whereas fumaric acid cannot form these bonds for geometric reasons.

Maleic Acid Structural Formula

The production of glyoxylic acid by ozonolysis requires Maleic Acid Formula. In addition to being a plant metabolite, it is also an algal metabolite and a mouse metabolite.

Preparation and Industrial Applications of Maleic Acid

The hydrolysis of maleic anhydride, created from benzene or butane oxidation, yields maleic acid. Ozonolysis produces glyoxylic acid from Maleic Acid Formula as an industrial raw material. To make drugs more stable, such as indacaterol maleate, maleic acid can be used to form acid addition salts. In methyl methacrylate adhesives, Maleic Acid Formula is also used to promote adhesion to nylon and zinc-coated metals, such as galvanised steel.


Maleic acid is predominantly used in industry for its conversion to fumaric acid. Various reagents, including mineral acids and thiourea, can catalyze this process, called an isomerisation. Likewise, fumaric acid can be easily purified due to its large water solubility difference. There is a lot of discussion in schools about isomerization. Since rotation around a carbon-carbon double bond is not energetically favourable, Maleic Acid Formula and fumaric acid cannot spontaneously interconvert. When a small amount of bromine is present, the cis isomer can be converted to the trans isomer by photolysis. As a result of the radical addition reaction between elemental bromine and an alkene radical, a bromoalkane radical is generated and now it is possible to rotate a single bond. Fumaric acid is formed when the bromine radicals recombine. Through the process of heating the Maleic Acid Formula in hydrochloric acid solution (used as a classroom demonstration), Maleic Acid Formula can be transformed into fumaric acid. When H + is reversibly added, the C-C bond rotates freely about the central point, forming fumaric acid, which is more stable and less soluble than acetic acid. Maleate isomerase, an enzyme produced by some bacteria, plays a role in the metabolism of nicotinate in bacteria. Isomerization of fumarate and maleate is catalysed by this enzyme.

Solved Examples for Maleic Acid Formula

The dehydration of the Maleic Acid Formula can produce maleic anhydride, the hydration of malic acid can produce malic acid, and the hydrogenation of succinic acid can produce succinic acid. As a result of its reaction with thionyl chloride or phosphorus pentachloride, maleic acid chloride is formed (it is not possible to isolate the monoacid chloride). Electrophilic maleic acid participates in many Diels-Alder reactions as a dienophile. As a result of ionization, maleic acid takes on the form of the maleate ion. As an inhibitor of transaminase reactions, the maleate ion is useful in Biochemistry. The maleic acid esters are also called maleates, such as dimethyl maleate. Several drugs that contain amines are available as maleate acid salts, such as carfenazine, chlorpheniramine, pyrilamine, methylergonovine, and thiethylperazine.

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