Acetonitrile Formula

Acetonitrile Formula

Acetonitrile Formula is a volatile organic molecule that has the chemical formula C2H3N or CH3CN. Cyanomethane and methane carbonitrile are other names for acetonitrile. Acetonitrile is its IUPAC name. Acetonitrile Formula is a nitrile, a type of hydrogen cyanide in which a methyl group stands in for the hydrogen (H) (-CH3). Acetonitrile is a clear liquid that has no colour at all. Acetonitrile Formula has a pleasant scent. Acetonitrile Formula is less dense than water in comparison. Its vapours have a higher density as compared to air. Acetonitrile has a flavour that is somewhat pleasant and is readily soluble in water. For more detailed information regarding this topic, students can visit the Extramarks website.

Acetonitrile Structural Formula

In terms of its functional group, Acetonitrile Formula is categorised as a nitrile. A carbon atom with a triple bond to a nitrogen atom is referred to as a nitrile in organic chemistry. The simplest organic nitrile with a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen is Acetonitrile Formula.

Preparation of Acetonitrile

As a byproduct of acrylonitrile production, Acetonitrile Formula is obtained. Acetonitrile Formula can also be made by dehydrating acetamide and ammonia, or by hydrogenating combinations of carbon monoxide. The invention described a two-step process for producing high-purity acetonitrile from acetic acid and ammonia, and the process includes the following two steps: Ammonium acetate is created by:

  • neutralising acetic acid and ammonia to produce ammonium acetate;
  • mixing an aqueous solution of ammonium acetate with gaseous ammonia; heating the mixture; and forcing it into a fixed bed reactor with an aluminium oxide catalyst for reaction to produce acetonitrile, which contains mixed gas; and
  • continuously refining the gas to produce pure Acetonitrile Formula.

Properties of Acetonitrile

Students can find detailed notes on the properties of the Acetonitrile Formula on the Extramarks website and mobile application. The notes and study materials curated by Extramarks’ experts on the Acetonitrile Formula are error-free and therefore, students need not worry about the accuracy and authenticity of the study materials.

Physical properties of Acetonitrile

Physically, Acetonitrile Formula is a transparent liquid that is colourless and has an aromatic scent. Acetonitrile Formula has a density of 0.783 g/cm3, making it a weak base. The boiling point ranges from 81.3 to 82.1oC, and the melting point is between -46 and -44oC. It dissolves in water.

Chemical Properties Of Acetonitrile

It is a nitrile (hydrogen cyanide) where the hydrogen has been replaced by a methyl group. It is also a polar compound, which implies that its atoms can draw electrons to themselves. Additionally, compared to carbon, nitrogen has a stronger electronegative charge.

Occurrence of Acetonitrile

Acetonitrile Formula develops as a byproduct during the production of acrylonitrile. Acetonitrile Formula is an acetic acid derivative that typically appears in an aqueous solution. Additionally, it is a byproduct of the extraction, chromatography, or other processes used to obtain acrylonitrile from the ammoxidation of propylene or waste streams.

Uses of Acetonitrile

Acetonitrile Formula plays a significant role in organic synthesis as a two-carbon building block. Acetonitrile Formula serves as a building block for the creation of large and complicated compounds by chemists. Additionally, it permits the addition of nitrogen atoms and two carbon atoms. Acetonitrile is most frequently used as a solvent for chemical reactions and compound purification procedures.

Sample Questions

The sample questions for Acetonitrile Formula are available for easy access on the Extramarks website and mobile application. Below is an overview of the same:

  1. Give the steps involved in making bis(acetonitrile)palladium dichloride.

Solution: Palladium chloride suspended in acetonitrile can be heated to produce bis(acetonitrile)palladium dichloride.

PdCl2 + 2CH3CN yields PdCl2 (CH3CN)2.

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